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Applied Polymer Composites

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Title: SYNTHESIS OF POLYPYRROLE/CELLULOSE COMPOSITES IN IONIC LIQUIDS
Page Range: p.125-154
Author(s): Yang Tan; Khashayar Ghandi
File size: 404K
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Journal: Applied Polymer Composites
Issue Year: apc
Volume: 1
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Conductive polymers are a promising class of polymer materials which have unusual combination properties of conductive metals and insulated plastics. Conductive polymers or conductive polymer-based composites are expected to be widely applied in the new growing technology area of photovoltaic devices, display devices, corrosion protection, batteries, and super-capacitors. Polypyrrole (PPy) is one of the conducting polymers. This study reports the synthesis of PPy/cellulose in ionic liquids (ILs). Conductive polypyrrole-cellulose ionic liquid (PPy-C-IL) composites were synthesised by chemical polymerisation. PPy-C-IL composites both overcome the inadequate mechanical property of polypyrrole, and give a conductive property to the world's most abundant material-cellulose. The synthesis applied a relatively 'green' method that employed a phosphonium IL (trihexyl(tetradecyl) phosphonium dicyanamide) as a novel solvent for dissolution of cellulose (pulp) and in situ polymerisation. The structures, morphology and electrical properties of the homogenous composites were characterized with Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, a scanning electron microscope, and a conductivity probe that was built in-house for the purpose. 65 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYURETHANE-LAYERED SILICATE NANOCOMPOSITES USING TRIS(2-HYDROXYETHYL)AMMONIUM IONS ATTACHED MONTMORILLONITE
Page Range: p.155-166
Author(s): Mukesh Kumar; Govind Gupta; Subramani Sankaraiah; Tharanikkarasu Kannan
File size: 232K
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Journal: Applied Polymer Composites
Issue Year: apc
Volume: 1
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Polyurethane-montmorillonite nanocomposites were successfully synthesised using novel tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium ions attached montmorillonite. To enhance the interfacial interactions between the polyurethane and montmorillonite, first, sodium ions present in sodium montmorillonite layers were exchanged with tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium ions and resulting modified montmorillonite was used during the synthesis of polyurethane. As tris(2-hydroxyethyl)ammonium ions are bigger than the sodium ions, during the modification, the distance between montmorillonite layers increased from 1.1 nm to 1.73 nm. X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy results confirm the formation of exfoliated and intercalated polyurethane-montmorillonite nanocomposites. When compared to virgin polyurethane, polyurethane-montmorillonite nanocomposites show higher thermal stability and glass transition temperature. 35 Refs.

Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF BACTERIAL CELLULOSE-CHITOSAN COMPOSITE MEMBRANE GRAFTED WITH THEOPHYLLINE-IMPRINTED COPOLYMER
Page Range: p.167-186
Author(s): Mohd Redza Abd Rahman; Ida Idayu Muhamad; Siti Nur Hidayah Mohamad; Norhayati Pa'e
File size: 345K
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Journal: Applied Polymer Composites
Issue Year: apc
Volume: 1
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Benzyl diethyl dithiocarbamate is immobilised on a composite bacterial cellulose chitosan membrane via a silane coupler. This treated membrane is grafted with theophylline-imprinted copolymer of methacrylic acid and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate by ultraviolet irradiation. The highest degree of grafting obtained is 0.3334% for r (weight ratio of monomers to bacterial cellulose-chitosan membrane) equal to 3.244 in mmol/ml. The synthesised membrane is prepared by using 0.5% chitosan solution containing 15.0% PEG and evaporating the solution for 2.5 hour after coating at room temperature. The relative flux of 3.69 L/m2.h at 12.5 bar is obtained. The average pore diameters are 135 A in dry state and 404 A in wet state. The chitosan and polyethylene glycol contents have a significant effect on membrane porosity and the flow rate of water through the membrane. The membrane tensile strength is larger than the plain bacterial cellulose support, in both wet and dry states. 25 Refs.

Title: COMBINED EFFECT OF ALKALI AND SILANE TREATMENTS ON TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF ROYSTONEA REGIA NATURAL FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.187-196
Author(s): Govardhan Goud; Rao R N
File size: 246K
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Journal: Applied Polymer Composites
Issue Year: apc
Volume: 1
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Effect of fibre content and combined effect of alkali and silane coupling agent treatments on tensile and impact properties of unidirectional roystonea regia natural fibre reinforced epoxy based partially bio degradable composites is reported. The reinforcement roystonea regia fibre was collected from the foliage of royal palm tree. To overcome the problems of poor fibre/matrix interface bonding, alkali and silane treatments have been applied to fibres to process the composites. Alkali treatment has been found to be more effective in improving the tensile properties than the silane treatment; however mixed treatment further slightly improved the properties. In general, the impact strength of all the treated fibre composites decreased compared to the untreated fibre composites; however, the silane treated fibre composites have shown higher impact strength followed by alkali treated fibre composites. Morphology of composites examined by scanning electron microscopy has also been reported. 14 Refs.

Title: MORPHOLOGICAL, PHYSICO-MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF BANANA PLANT FIBERS (MUSA SAPIENTUM)
Page Range: p.197-206
Author(s): Aseer J R; Sankaranarayanasamy K; Jayabalan P
File size: 169K
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Journal: Applied Polymer Composites
Issue Year: apc
Volume: 1
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Environmental consciousness and increasing awareness of green technology have stirred the entire gamut of industry to move towards new materials instead of using conventional synthetic polymeric fibres. They are both a responsible and a sustainable choice. Natural fibre can be a good substitute as they are available in fibrous form at low cost. The work presented here deals with banana fibres (Musa Sapientum) which are extracted from the stem of the banana plant. The microstructure, physical and mechanical properties are investigated. The diameter and density of the fibres are 0.15 mm and 1.36 g/cm3 respectively. Tensile test results show that tensile strength is in the range of 345-520 MPa. The fracture mode of fibres after tensile testing are investigated through Scanning electron microscope images (SEM). Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that thermal stability of banana fibre is up to 252 deg C. 19 Refs.

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