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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: MATRIX CRACKING AND DELAMINATIONS IN ORTHOTROPIC LAMINATES SUBJECTED TO FREEZE-THAW: MODEL DEVELOPMENT
Page Range: p.327-340
Author(s): Roy S; Nie G H; Karedla R; Dharani L
File size: 126K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 10
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
The use of fibre composites in infrastructure retrofit is hampered by the lack of reliable predictive models and sound design guidelines for their use in civil engineering application, particularly in aggressive environments that involve extreme temperatures and humidity. This paper attempts to establish a theoretical framework for the calculation of the stress intensity factor of a pre-existing crack in a composite structure due to the phase transition of trapped moisture. The principle of minimum strain energy is employed to calculate the elastic field within an orthotropic laminate containing an idealised elliptical elastic inclusion in the form of ice. It is postulated that a slender elliptical elastic inclusion can be used to approximate the stress field at the crack face, which can subsequently be used to calculate the stress intensity factor for the crack. 20 refs.

Title: PHENOLIC RESINS - CHARACTERIZATIONS AND KINETIC STUDIES OF DIFFERENT RESOLS PREPARED WITH DIFFERENT CATALYSTS AND FORMALDEHYDE/PHENOL RATIOS (I)
Page Range: p.341-360
Author(s): Bouajila J; Raffin G; Watson H; Sanglar C; Paisse J O; Grenier-Loustalot M F
File size: 261K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 10
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Physicochemical and kinetic properties of resols prepared with different catalysts and variable formaldehyde/phenol ratios were investigated to determine their effects on the mechanisms and reaction products at a fixed pH and temperature. The purpose of the work was to characterise the different species present: mono-, di-, tri-benzene and higher derivatives, created and transitory in the reaction mixture, in order to establish a relationship between chemical structure and properties of the material. 19 refs.

Title: NONLINEAR VISCOELASTICITY OF SILICONE CARBIDE WHISKER-FILLED LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMER MELTS
Page Range: p.361-374
Author(s): Katsuhiko A; Takeshi K; Takahiro T; Anezka L; Petr S
File size: 297K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 10
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
A melt of semi-aromatic liquid crystalline polymer filled with small diameter fibrous silicone carbide whiskers was measured for its dynamic viscoelastic properties to analyse the effects of the fibre size and strain amplitude on the non-linearity of its viscoelasticity by Fourier expansion. The results are compared with those previously found for carbon fibre- and glass fibre-filled liquid crystal polymers. 18 refs.

Title: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND MICROSTRUCTURE OF THE HDPE/AL(OH)3/POE COMPOSITE
Page Range: p.375-380
Author(s): Yang J; Zhang Y; Zhang Y
File size: 122K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 10
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
In order to produce polymers with reduced flammability and to retain toughness, the incorporation of polymers functionalised with compounds such as maleic anhydride is used. Filler surface modification and functionalisation of the rubber and polymer are shown to be the main factors controlling the microstructure of the ternary phase composites. Functionalisation of rubber leads to an encapsulation structure, and functionalisation of polymer leads to a dispersed structure. In this present study, ternary phase HDPE composites, containing ethylene-octene copolymer and aluminium hydroxide were investigation to explore the effect of ethylene-octene copolymer and maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-octene copolymer on the mechanical properties, especially the toughness, of the highly filled composite. Maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-octene copolymer was found to impart improved toughness, whereas the effect of ethylene-octene copolymer was negligible. The microstructure of the ternary phase composites was explored by SEM, DMA, and DSC. An encapsulation structure was obtained when maleic anhydride grafted ethylene-octene copolymer was used, and a phase separated structure was obtained when ethylene-octene copolymer was used. 20 refs.

Title: STUDY OF UTILIZATION OF GROUND EVA WASTE AS FILLER IN NBR VULCANIZATES
Page Range: p.381-390
Author(s): Moreira V X; Soares B G
File size: 149K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 10
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Post-industrial EVA waste from the footwear industry was used in blends with nitrile rubber. Varying blend ratios were investigated with respect to the changes in tensile strength, elongation at break, hardness, tear strength and dynamic mechanical properties with differing filler loadings of ground EVA. Optimum concentrations are determined. 22 refs.

Title: RADIATION INDUCED GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION OF METHYL ACRYLATE AND ETHYL ACRYLATE ONTO POLY(TETRAFLUOROETHYLENE-CO-ETHYLENE) FILM
Page Range: p.391-404
Author(s): Kaur I; Misra B N; Kumar R; Singh B
File size: 166K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 10
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
The lack of functional groups in DuPont's Tefzel film, (a copolymer of tetrafluoroethylene and ethylene) makes its use limited in the areas where interaction between the polar functionalities is needed. Therefore, to introduce various functional groups, modification of Tefzel was carried out by graft copolymerisation of vinyl monomers such as methyl methacrylate and ethyl acrylate by a pre-irradiation method in aqueous medium. Optimum conditions for obtaining the maximum grafting were evaluated for both monomers. The effect of aliphatic alcohols of varying chain length, such as methanol, ethanol, n-butanol, 1-pentanol and cyclohexanol on the percentage grafting of MA and EA was also studied. Characterisation of Tefzel and grafted Tefzel films was carried out by IR spectroscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Grafted Tefzel film was found to have improved thermal resistance. 15 refs.

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