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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: MILLED CARBON MICROFIBER-REINFORCED POLY(PHENYLENESULFIDE) COATINGS FOR ABATING CORROSION OF CARBON STEEL
Page Range: p.161-169
Author(s): Sugama T; Gawlik K
File size: 109K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Recent advances in milling technology have made it possible to produce an extremely short carbon microfibre which retains all of its mechanical properties and the filament's shape. Use of such a short fibre enables a substantial amount of it to be incorporated into a polyphenylene sulphide protective coating for use on steel. The emphasis of the current study is to assess the effectiveness of this milled carbon microfibre in enhancing further the thermal conductivity and the mechanical properties of the carbon fibre-reinforced PPS composite coating. Results of tests showed that the composite coatings were able to protect underlying carbon steel against corrosion in 250 degrees C carbon dioxide-laden brine. The reason for the hydrothermal stability is reported to be conformational changes in the molecular structure of the PPS, from sulphide bridging to sulphone bridging, which increased the thermal stability of the matrix. 9 refs.

Title: DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES OF MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES IN A RESIN MATRIX
Page Range: p.171-178
Author(s): Allaoui A; Bai J B; Rieux N
File size: 130K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The dielectric properties of a multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWNT)/epoxy composite are studied by impedance spectroscopy. Results showed that the addition of a small amount of MWNT increases the permittivity of the resin by many orders of magnitude. The insulator-to-conductor transition, which occurred when a few wt% of MWNTs was added to the matrix, is said to be related to a percolation phenomenon with non-universal critical exponent. Two types of MWNTs treatment are compared, and the results are claimed to demonstrate that MWNTs should be used in as-prepared state. The treatment is shown to alter their morphology, and reduce the aspect ratio by a factor of 10, leading to a modification of the shape of the insulator-to-conductor transition curve and a decrease of the global improvement. 15 refs.

Title: POLYAMIDE REINFORCED EPDM COMPATIBILIZED WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE GRAFTED ETHYLENE-PROPYLENE-DIENE RUBBER
Page Range: p.179-188
Author(s): Liu X; Huang H; Zhang Y; Zhang Y
File size: 128K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Vulcanisates of blends of EPDM and polyamide copolymer were prepared by reactive compatibilisation using maleic anhydride grafted EPDM. The influence is investigated of compatibilisers, crosslinking agents, and blend composition on the mechanical properties. The morphologies of the blends were determined by scanning electron microscopy. It was found that the addition of MAH-g-EPDM reduced the particle size of the dispersed phase. The stability of the blend was measured by thermal ageing at high temperatures in the presence of the compatibiliser. Both dynamic mechanical thermal analysis and differential scanning calorimetry experiments were carried out to investigate the effect of MAH-g-EPDM addition on the Tgs of the blend components. It was demonstrated that the addition of amide copolymer caused significant improvement in the tensile properties of these blends. 15 refs.

Title: MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF POLY(3-HYDROXYBUTYRATE)/FUNCTIONALIZED ETHYLENE COPOLYMER BLENDS
Page Range: p.189-196
Author(s): Dias M L; Giornes A M; Mendes L C
File size: 92K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Tests were carried out to determine the morphology and mechanical properties of blends prepared from polyhydroxybutyrate and ionomers formed by copolymerisation of ethylene and methacrylic acid, either in the acid form, or partially neutralised with zinc and sodium. Results revealed that the type of processing and residence time of the components in the equipment, together with the ionomer content, had a great influence on the blend properties. An increase was observed in the molecular weight of polyhydroxybutyrate as the ionomer content increased in the blends, which is reported to indicate that exchange reactions occurred during the mixing process which took place using either an internal mixer or a twin screw extruder. The extent of these reactions and the residence time in the equipment led to variations in the mechanical properties, with the best elongation values obtained using the internal mixer and a higher ionomer content. 11 refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF AMIDE-CONTAINING BISNADIMIDE COPPER FOIL COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.197-212
Author(s): Chou S; Lee K-S
File size: 215K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The need for increased heat resistance in printed circuit boards, has led to the development of modified polyimides for use in coating copper foils to form laminates. This work reports the introduction of the amide (-NHCO-) group in to the molecular chain to improve the flexibility and solubility of polyimides. Nadic anhydride was used to synthesise an end-capped low molecular weight polyamide-imide polymer. The amide-containing bisnadimide resin can be used as an adhesive in a hot press with the copper foil to form laminates. 13 refs.

Title: STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS FOR POLYIMIDES REINFORCED WITH THE SOL-GEL DERIVED ORGANOSILICON NANOPARTICLES
Page Range: p.213-218
Author(s): Privalko V P; Shantalii T A; Karpova I L; Dragan K S; Privalko E G
File size: 123K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
This paper reports on an alternative approach to the preparation of polyimide-based polymer nanocomposites involving the in situ generation of crosslinked organosilicon nanoparticles through the sol-gel process. This approach is assumed both to ensure the homogeneous dispersion of sol-gel derived nanoparticles within a continuous polymer matrix, and to take advantage of the autocatalytic effect of acidic groups of a precursor (polyamic acid) in the polycondensation reaction. 13 refs.

Title: PROBLEMS AND PITFALLS IN THE EVALUATION AND DESIGN OF NEW BIOCIDES FOR PLASTICS APPLICATIONS
Page Range: p.219-227
Author(s): Kneale C
File size: 158K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
A discussion is presented of factors which need to be considered in the design and testing of a new biocide for plastics applications. In Europe, biocides are becoming more tightly regulated under the Biocidal Products Directive, which requires a significant data package for the registration of new actives and existing formulations. Once the issue of compatibility has been addressed, the antimicrobial efficiency has to be established. Prior to selection of a test method to demonstrate such efficacy, consideration is given to whether the substrate should be pre-conditioned to simulate end-use conditions, e.g., by artificial leaching or weathering. Advantages and disadvantages of traditional test methods are discussed, and an alternative method for the evaluation of biocidal performance is presented, which is claimed to be more representative of end-use conditions.

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