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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: PHENOLIC RESINS (IV). THERMAL DEGRADATION OF CROSSLINKED RESINS IN CONTROLLED ATMOSPHERES
Page Range: p.345-357
Author(s): Bouajila J; Raffin G; Alamercery S; Waton H; Sanglar C; Grenier-Loustalot M F
File size: 144K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
In order to determine the stability of crosslinked phenolic resins, their thermal degradation was studied in controlled atmospheres, both inert and oxidising. The structures of gaseous products released and of the degradation residues indicated that they depend on the degradation atmosphere, temperature, and the conditions in which the crosslinked resins were prepared. In the case of thermal degradation in an inert atmosphere, cyclic compounds and low molecular weight compounds were formed. In the case of degradation in an oxidising atmosphere, cyclic compounds are negligible, while large quantities of low molecular weight compounds are released. Formaldehyde is released in both atmospheres, with less released by resins prepared with cycle 2. The analysis of degradation residues is claimed to prove that such resins exhibit thermal stability up to 300 degrees C in an oxidising atmosphere, and up to 380 degrees C in an inert atmosphere. 20 refs.

Title: POLY(E-CAPROLACTONE) COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH SHORT ABACA FIBRES
Page Range: p.359-367
Author(s): Shibata M; Yosomiya R; Ohta N; Sakamoto A; Takeishi H
File size: 263K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
The tensile properties of poly-epsilon-caprolactone, (PCL) composites reinforced with short abaca fibres, prepared by melt mixing and subsequent injection moulding, were investigated and compared with PCL composites reinforced with glass fibres. The influence of fibre content and surface esterification of the natural fibre on the tensile properties was evaluated. The tensile strength and moduli of all the PCL/abaca composites was shown to increase with increasing fibre content, and all had a higher tensile strength than PCL/glass fibre composites when the fibre weight fraction was the same. The tensile strength of the PCL/abaca composites was improved by surface esterification of the fibre with acetic anhydride or butyric anhydride in the presence of pyridine. This was due, it is demonstrated by SEM photographs, to the increase in the interfacial adhesiveness between the matrix polyester and the esterificated fibre. 11 refs.

Title: EFFECT OF HEAT TREATMENT ON THE TENSILE STRENGTH OF GLASS FIBRE REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE
Page Range: p.369-381
Author(s): Lin J-S
File size: 285K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Improvements in the interfacial adhesion of glass fibre reinforced polypropylene by heat treatment, was studied. Polypropylene was blended with glass fibres and injection moulded. The moulded parts were treated at various temperatures for various times, and characterisation of the mechanical properties of the resulting samples was performed including measurement of the critical fibre length, and by means of differential scanning calorimetry. Results show that the critical fibre length increases while the tensile strength decreased with increasing testing temperature. At 25 and 80 degrees C, heat treatment is shown to improve tensile strength, but that at or above 120 degrees C, certain treatment conditions cause the tensile strength to decrease significantly. 32 refs.

Title: NONLINEAR VISCOELASTICITY OF FIBER-FILLED POLYPROPYLENE MELTS
Page Range: p.383-395
Author(s): Katsuhiko A; Takeshi K; Takahiro T; Anezka L; Petr S
File size: 266K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
This study reports on the results of a series of experiments conducted on general purpose polypropylene and its short carbon fibre filled systems. The steady-state shear flow and dynamic viscoelastic behaviour of these polymer systems were measured on a cone-plate type rheogoniometer to examine the effects of their fibre content, angular frequency and strain amplitude upon their dynamic viscoelastic properties. The dynamic viscoelasticity of carbon fibre/PP systems was analysed for non-linearity by expanding the stress waveform in the Fourier series. The analytical results were compared with those obtained from the Lissajous figures. Similarities and differences with carbon fibre reinforced liquid crystal polymers are also discussed. 25 refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF SILANE MODIFICATION OF KAOLINS ON PHYSICO-MECHANICAL AND STRUCTURAL PROPERTIES OF FILLED PVC COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.397-406
Author(s): Domka L; Foltynowicz Z; Jurga S; Kozak M
File size: 329K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Results are presented of a study of the potential of modified kaolin as a filler for PVC. Kaolin from Maria III deposits in Poland was used, and aminosilanes and mercaptosilanes were used to modify the surface. Basic physicochemical parameters such s the absorption capacity of the plasticiser, the heat of immersion in hydrophobic and hydrophilic solvents, and the morphology of particles of the modified filler were characterised. It was found that the modified kaolins improved the physicomechanical properties of PVC, and in particular its elongation when used at 10 and 15% w/w levels in the composite. The microstructure of the filled composites was also studied using small angle X-ray scattering, and scanning electron microscopy techniques. 21 refs.

Title: ELECTRICAL TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF DOPED POLY(P-PHENYLENE)
Page Range: p.407-414
Author(s): Campos M
File size: 75K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
In this work, the dc electrical conductivity of ferric chloride doped polyphenylene samples as a function of temperature is measured using a low electric field, and based on the results, the dc conduction mechanism is discussed in order to further clarify the carrier mechanism for charge transport. The temperature dependence is studied in terms of some hopping models. It is observed that the multiphonon-assisted hopping of charge carriers with a weak interaction with phonons is the dominant charge transport process in the entire temperature range. 54 refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF PHYSICAL MORPHOLOGY OF MINERAL POWDER ON THE REINFORCING EFFECT IN SILICONE RUBBER
Page Range: p.415-417
Author(s): Wu J; Lin J; Lin S; Shen Z; Wei C
File size: 46K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
The physical morphology and surface properties of a mineral filler is investigated with reference to the affect this has on the reinforcing effect when used in silicone rubber formulations. Results of tests are discussed which indicate that the size, area, shape and state of aggregation of the filler is influential in determining its reinforcing affect in silicone rubber. Fumed silica, precipitated silica and crystalline quartz were chosen in order to compare the influence of the crystalline state of the filler on its reinforcing effect. It was found that there was no direct connection between the crystalline state of the filler and the reinforcing effect, but that this did indirectly affect the reinforcing capability by changing the shape and thus surface energy of the filler. 8 refs.

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