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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: INTERMEDIATE VELOCITY IMPACT RESPONSE OF CARBON/EPOXY COMPOSITES WITH POLYCARBONATE FACING
Page Range: p.421-432
Author(s): Vaidya U K; Ulven C A; Hosur M V; Alexander J; Liudahl L
File size: 396K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
A study of the intermediate velocity impact of composites is presented with reference to the use of low-cost processing methods such as vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding, (VARTM) in order to address the process-performance relationships to various loading threats. Carbon graphite fibre composites are susceptible to impact damage because of their poor impact resistance, and are the focus of the present work. An evaluation is reported of the intermediate velocity impact response of two commonly used structural carbon fabric laminates produced from plain and 2/2 twill woven fabrics, processed using VARTM. All carbon/epoxy laminates were covered with a polycarbonate facing in order to enhance impact resistance. The perforation mechanism, ballistic limit, and damage evolution of each laminate is discussed. 14 refs.

Title: MANUFACTURING AND EVALUATION OF WOODFIBRE-WASTE PLASTIC COMPOSITE SHEETS
Page Range: p.433-440
Author(s): Bhattacharyya D; Jayaraman K
File size: 267K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
This study investigates the feasibility of post-consumer waste plastics from a kerbside collection, reinforced with high temperature mechanical pulp Pinus Radiata fibres. Composite specimens are manufactured in sheet form from relatively large fibre mats, produced by a novel mat forming technique through a bulk consolidation process. Tensile strength and modulus of the composite sheets are determined as a function of wood fibre content. A significant part of the investigation is dedicated to the understanding of the formability of these composite sheets using dome forming , aided by a specially developed software package based on kinematic principles, known as grid strain analysis. 22 refs.

Title: HIGHLY FILLED NANO-CdS/POLYSTYRENE NANOCOMPOSITE FILM WITH SELF-ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOUR
Page Range: p.441-448
Author(s): Liang H C; Rong M Z; Zhang M Q; Zeng H M; Xiang H; Wang S F; Gong Q H
File size: 159K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
This work describes the preparation of highly filled nanocomposite film with cadmium sulphide nanoparticles as the fillers and polystyrene as the matrix. Being self-organised in the matrix, the nano-CdS particles can be incorporated at a content as high as 20 wt. %. It was demonstrated that CdS nanoparticles can be self-organised in PS when a certain mercaptan is used to coat the particle surface. The performance of such composites is characterised by the study of their optical properties.

Title: A STUDY OF THE CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF DYNAMICALLY VULCANIZED EPDM/NYLON COPOLYMER BLENDS
Page Range: p.449-464
Author(s): Liu X; Huang H; Zhang Y; Zhang Y
File size: 188K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
This paper explores the effects of dynamic vulcanisation, rubber and compatibiliser on the crystallisation of nylon in thermoplastic elastomers based on EPDM/nylon copolymer blends. The crystallisation kinetics were studied under non-isothermal and isothermal conditions from the melt and differential scanning calorimetry was used to monitor the energetics of the crystallisation process. Relative crystallisation was shown to develop in accordance with the time dependence described by the Avrami equation. Experimental results indicate that the EPDM rubber is not the nucleating agent in those samples that were not dynamically vulcanised, and that the addition of chlorinated polyethylene has no effect on the crystallisation of nylon. However, in dynamically vulcanised samples, the EPDM rubber is a nucleating agent and the addition of chlorinated PE helps the EPDM to form fine and well-dispersed particles, and improve the crystallisation of nylon. 32 refs.

Title: PREDICTION OF PERMEABILITY TENSOR FOR PLAIN WOVEN FABRIC BY USING CONTROL VOLUME FINITE ELEMENT METHOD
Page Range: p.465-476
Author(s): Song Y S; Chung K; Kang T J; Youn J R
File size: 211K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
The efficiency of the resin transfer moulding process for the production of fibre-reinforced polymer composites, is dependent on the determination of the permeability of the preform. In this study, permeability at the microscopic level was computed for the square and hexagonal packing of the filaments inside each yarn by using control volume finite element method. Permeability for the three-dimensional macroscopic unit cell (which represents curved yarns in a plain woven fabric) was calculated by using the same numerical method without considering resin flow inside each yarn. By application of the proposed coupled flow model, which combines macroscopic permeability with microscopic permeability, the total permeability was determined for the plain woven fabric and compared with an experimental value. This study is claimed to have considered a more realistic unit cell representing the three-dimensional preform architecture, including tow crimp, spacing and stacking. It was observed that in-plane flow was more dominant than transverse flow within the woven preform, and the effect of the stacking order of a multi-layered preform, was negligible. 26 refs.

Title: SBS/CARBON BLACK COMPOUNDS GIVE ASPHALTS WITH IMPROVED HIGH-TEMPERATURE STORAGE STABILITY
Page Range: p.477-485
Author(s): Wang S; Zhang Y; Zhang Y
File size: 238K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
In order to produce modified asphalts with high temperature storage stability, carbon black was added to styrene-butadiene-styrene tri-block copolymers. The effect of carbon black on the high temperature storage properties, dynamic rheology, mechanical properties (softening point, viscosity, etc.) and the morphologies of the modified asphalts were studied. It was found that the ratio of SBS to carbon black in the compound had a great effect on the high-temperature storage behaviour, and that the modified compounds were stable when the ratio was around 2. The introduction of carbon black was shown to have almost no effect on the dynamic rheology or the mechanical properties of the modified. The improvement in high-temperature storage stability is attributed to a decrease in density difference and an improvement in the compatibility between SBS and the asphalt. 16 refs.

Title: RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF PP/PET AND MODIFIED PP/PET BLENDS. 1 STEADY STATE FLOW PROPERTIES
Page Range: p.487-504
Author(s): Zdrazilova N; Hausnerova B; Kitano T; Saha P
File size: 456K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
This study aims to ascertain the effect of compatibilisation on the steady shear flow properties of PP and PETP blends using two approaches: the first involved the functionalisation of PP by the addition of maleic anhydride (in situ reactive blending), and the second, the use of already-modified PP which is commercially available in Japan. The rheological properties, morphology and thermal behaviour of the compatibilised blends were studied and compared with those of uncompatibilised ones, with special consideration given to the effect of different viscosity ratios of particular blends. The influence of the molten and unmolten state of one blend component (PETP), and the effect of blend composition on rheology, was also discussed. It is concluded that the blending of PP and PETP combined with the addition of a modifier, represents an appropriate recycling method for these waste materials. 39 refs.

Title: CYLINDRICAL ORTHOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SPIRAL WOVEN COMPOSITES. PART 1: MODELLING OF A SPIRAL WOVEN STRUCTURE
Page Range: p.505-511
Author(s): Cheng C-C; Chiu C-H
File size: 292K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 11
Issue No: No. 6

Abstract
This is the first of a series of papers on the cylindrical orthotropic thermal conductivity of spiral woven composites. In this study, the geometric characteristics of spiral woven composites are modelled. A single layer of spiral woven fabric is considered as a fundamental structure, and used to develop representative models, including round disc and polygon ones. In these representative models, crimps, cross-sections, and radial and circumferential arrangements of yarns are illustrated by cosine and arc yarn shape functions. 28 refs.

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