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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: NANOSCALE BOEHMITE FILLER FOR CORROSION- AND WEAR-RESISTANT POLYPHENYLENESULFIDE COATINGS
Page Range: p.153-167
Author(s): Sugama T; Gawlik K
File size: 367K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
An evaluation is carried out into the use of nanoscale boehmite crystals for use as a filler in wear and corrosion resistant PPS metal coatings. Their use was found to reduce the rate of blasting wear and improve thermal stability. The wear rate of PPS surfaces was found to to reduce three-fold when 5 wt% boehmite was incorporated. During exposure for 15 days in a 300 degrees corrosive geothermal environment, the PPS was shown to undergo hydrothermal oxidation, leading to the substitution of sulphide linkages by sulphite linkages. Such molecular rearrangement, however, did not diminish the ability of the coating to protect mild steel against corrosion. The one reported concern is the tendency of boehmite to absorb brine, so that the addition of an excessive amount of boehmite was found to be detrimental to achieving maximum protection. 17 refs.

Title: DURABILITY OF ISOPHTHALIC POLYESTER COMPOSITES USED IN CIVIL ENGINEERING APPLICATIONS
Page Range: p.169-182
Author(s): Dagher H J; Iqbal A; Bogner B
File size: 207K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The objectives of this paper are to review the literature relating to the durability of isophthalic polyester composites for use in civil engineering applications, and to present comparative data on the durability of isophthalic polyester versus polyvinyl ester. Based on the review, the aim is to propose additional durability research work which needs to be carried out on isophthalic polyesters for specific civil end-use environments, particularly in conjunction with concrete and high alkaline environments. 26 refs.

Title: ON THE RESPONSE OF STITCHED WOVEN S2-GLASS/EPOXY COMPOSITES TO HIGH STRAIN RATE COMPRESSION LOADING
Page Range: p.183-196
Author(s): Hosur M V; Karim M R; Jeelani S
File size: 269K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The results are discussed of experimental investigations, carried out to understand the response of stitched and unstitched S2-glass/SC epoxy composites to high strain rate compression loading, using a Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar set-up. Fifteen layers of plain weave S2-glass fabric were used to fabricate stitched and unstitched laminates with a low viscosity RTV SC-15 epoxy resin system. A 3-cord Kevlar thread was used for the stitching. Four different types of samples were considered, with sample configurations designated according to the location of the stitch line with reference to the loading direction. Dynamic and static responses of the laminate under compression were compared, and failure modes were studied using optical microscopy. Results showed that under higher strain rates loading, the stitched laminates exhibited a confining effect, and that overall, stitched laminates proved to provide increased damage resistance. 23 refs.

Title: COMPARISON BETWEEN CURE SYSTEMS FOR EPDM/MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.197-206
Author(s): Zheng H; Zhang Y; Peng Z; Zhang Y
File size: 117K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Assuming that different cure systems would result in different types of EPDM/organic montmorillonite, (OMM) nanocomposites, this work investigates the results of the use of sulphur and peroxide cure systems. The effects of the two cure systems on the morphology, mechanical and optical properties of the EPDM/OMM composites were investigated. In addition, the thermal properties of OMMT and the curing behaviour of the two cure systems were also investigated. 27 refs.

Title: STRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF INJECTION MOULDED CF/LCP THIN PLATES
Page Range: p.207-220
Author(s): Baba F; Fujita A; Hon C; Nakai A; Hamada H
File size: 459K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
This paper reports on a study of the effect of the injection speed on the structure and bending properties of liquid crystal polymer (LCP) injection moulded plates. The distribution of the modulus in injection moulded LCP and CF/LCP thin plates, made using two different injection speeds, was investigated by taking slices at 0.1 mm intervals. In addition, the modulus of the CF/LCP thin plate was estimated by the Cox formula and by laminate theory from values of the fibre orientation and modulus of each LCP layer. It was found that the differences in the bending properties and structures due to changes in injection speed were not remarkable. Differences in fracture behaviours with changes in the cutting position were caused by the differences in the modulus of each layer as in the laminated composite. It was confirmed that injection moulded CF/LCP could be treated in general as a laminated composite, and that the distribution of the modulus in injection moulded CF/LCP could be evaluated by the slicing technique. It was shown that by evaluating the fibre orientation and modulus of the sliced specimens, that fibre orientation contributed to the difference in the modulus near the surface when the injection speed changed. It was also verified that the prediction method suggested by the authors is valid to estimate the modulus of thin injection moulded CF/LCP plates. 12 refs.

Title: A NOTE ON THE MECHANICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NON-HOMOGENEOUS AND GRADED VULCANIZED RUBBERS
Page Range: p.221-224
Author(s): Bilgili E
File size: 50K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
A theoretical analysis is made to demonstrate that the use of the standard mechanical tests is both inadequate and erroneous for the characterisation of non-homogeneous rubbers undergoing large deformations. Within the framework of non-homogeneous material models, this paper proves that boundary displacements and tractions alone are not sufficient to identify the mechanical properties of non-homogeneous rubbers, and suggests the full-field measurement of displacement-strain in deformed rubber specimens for an accurate characterisation. This is theoretically illustrated by analysing the deformation of a non-homogenous rubber slab in a standard shear test. 10 refs.

Title: COMBINED ISOTROPIC-KINEMATIC HARDENING LAWS WITH ANISOTROPIC BACK-STRESS EVOLUTION FOR ORTHOTROPIC FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.225-233
Author(s): Lee M G; Chung K K; Youn J R; Kang T J
File size: 231K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
In order to develop the theory of plasticity for orthotropic fibre-reinforced composites, a new combined isotropic-kinematic hardening law with the anisotropic back-stress evolution, was developed under the elasto-plasticity scheme. To account of the anisotropic yield function, Hill's quadratic yield function was used. The stress update scheme based on the incremental deformation theory was also developed. Example solutions confirmed that the new constitutive equation well represented the Bauschinger and transient behaviours, as well as the directional dependence of the back-stress evolution for the highly anisotropic materials such as fibre-reinforced composites. 16 refs.

Title: A ZONE DRAWING METHOD TO DETERMINE OPTIMUM INITIAL CONCENTRATION OF POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) TO MAKE FILMS WITH DIFFERENT DEGREES OF SAPONIFICATION
Page Range: p.235-242
Author(s): Joon Ho Kim; Won Sik Yoon; Jeong Hyun Yeum; Byung Chul Ji; Hee Sam Kim; Han-Yong Jeon; Won Seok Lyoo
File size: 147K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The optimum preparation conditions for atactic polyvinyl alcohol films were investigated by measuring the polymer concentration, draw ratio and degree of saponification. Atactic PVA films were prepared by casting in water with different polymer concentrations. The a-PVA films were zone-drawn under various conditions. Using the optimum polymer concentration of the a-PVA/water solutions caused significant changes in the draw ratio of the films, which were maximised at the initial polymer concentration, but which gradually decreased at higher or lower concentrations. The birefringence, degree of crystal orientation and tensile properties of a-PVA films, having the same draw ratios were the highest at these optimum polymer concentrations. Optimum concentrations were reconfirmed by viscometry. Optimum conditions of the film casting of atactic PVA with various degrees of saponification were established by the zone drawing method. The agreement between the optimum concentration values obtained by zone drawing and viscometry suggests that the zone drawing method is an appropriate and convenient way to establish the optimum concentration for maximum draw ration, birefringence, degree of crystal orientation, and tensile properties. 18 refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF GAMMA-RADIATION ON THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTANCE OF NR/IIR CONDUCTIVE BLEND DURING SWELLING IN KEROSENE
Page Range: p.243-254
Author(s): Madani M
File size: 122K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
A study is reported on the influence of gamma-irradiation on the electrical conductance of a natural rubber-butyl rubber blend, filled with differing concentrations of general purpose furnace carbon black, during swelling in kerosene. The degree of swelling and the penetration rate in kerosene for the blends are also studied as a function of the irradiation dose. An attempt was made to calculate the carbon-carbon interspacing distance and its dependence on solvent penetration rate for un-irradiated, as well as irradiated samples. It was concluded that the addition of carbon black by different concentration to the rubber blend caused a dramatic increase in its conductance value by several orders of magnitude, moreover, the percolation threshold is detected at 30 phr of GPF. The degree of swelling, as well as conductance values for all un-irradiated and irradiated composites were highly affected with swelling time up to a characteristic value, indicating a destruction of carbon black structure in the bulk of the rubber matrix. The electrical conductance and the penetration rate values decreased with irradiation according to the excitation of rubber molecules, chemical bond rupture and creation of free radicals which randomly recombine. The calculated interspacing gaps values for all composites showed an exponential growth function with time. 29 refs.

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