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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: EPOXY/GLASS RESIN INJECTION PULTRUSION SIMULATION
Page Range: p.537-550
Author(s): Rahatekar S S; Roux J A
File size: 200K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the influence of various processing parameters on the injection pultrusion of epoxy/glass rovings composites. Parameters include pulling speed, fibre volume fraction, resin viscosity, and fibre matrix permeability, and these are considered with respect to the magnitude of the injection pressure needed to achieve complete wet out of the fibres in the injection chamber. The recommended injection pressures for complete wet out are predicted for specified sets of processing parameters. Darcy's law for flow through porous media is used to simulate the pressure field and flow field for the fibre/resin system corresponding to injection pultrusion. Different permeability models were used to determine the transverse and longitudinal permeability employed in the numerical simulation. The governing equations were solved by means of the finite volume method to predict the resin pressure field, resin velocity filed, and resin moving flow front. 7 refs.

Title: TEMPERATURE EFFECTS ON THE FATIGUE BEHAVIOUR OF FOAM CORE SANDWICH STRUCTURES
Page Range: p.551-559
Author(s): Kanny K; Mahfuz H; Thomas T; Jeelani S
File size: 221K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
An investigation is reported on the fatigue behaviour of foam core sandwich structures. Two types of PVC cores of the same nominal density were used: one was linear HD foam and the other a slightly crosslinked H foam. The face material for both was S2-glass/vinylester. Fatigue tests were conducted on these sandwich structures at room temperature, 40 degrees and 80 degrees C. The tests were carried out on an MTS machine equipped with an environmental chamber. S-N diagrams were generated which revealed that the fatigue life increased with decreased stress and decreased with increased temperatures. At room temperature, HD structures showed a much longer fatigue life compared to H structures. However, at elevated temperatures, a complete reversal of this trend was seen, and further significant difference sin the failure of H and HD structures are discussed. Details of the experimentation, the analysis of the fatigue data, and the damage mechanisms are presented. 16 refs.

Title: RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)/DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE/WATER CONCENTRATED SOLUTIONS
Page Range: p.561-567
Author(s): Sung Jun Lee; Jin Woo Kwak; Hyo Dae Kim; Han Yong Jeon; Joon Ho Kim; Won Sik Yoon; Won Seok Lyoo
File size: 130K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
Before carrying out gel spinning of polyvinyl acetate (PVA) to prepare high-performance PVA fibres, the rheological properties of solutions of high molecular weight PVA in dimethyl sulphoxide(DMSO)/water mixtures was studied, with various polymer concentrations at various temperatures. Polymer concentration and solution temperature was shown to play a significant role in the rheological behaviour of high molecular weight PVA solutions. Over the frequency range examined, PVA solutions showed shear thinning behaviour at lower temperatures, and as the polymer concentration was increased, the extent of shear thinning also increased. In the plot of storage modulus of PVA solution with loss modulus, the slope was less than 2, indicating that the phase of PVA solutions in DMSO/water is heterogeneous. 21 refs.

Title: EFFECTS OF TRANS-ESTERIFICATION STABILIZERS ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND STRUCTURE OF POLY(BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/POLYCARBONATE BLENDS
Page Range: p.569-576
Author(s): Huiyu Bai; Yong Zhang; Yinxi Zhang; Xiangfu Zhang; Wen Zhou
File size: 100K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
The effects of using triphenyl phosphite (TPPi) and disodium diphosphate (DSDP) on the transesterification between PBTP and polycarbonate in melt mixing, and the mechanical properties of PBTP/PC blends, were studied. The experimental results showed that the Vicat temperature of the blends increased because of the toughened PBTP/PC blends containing poly(ethylene-butylacrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) (PTW) as toughener, and TPPi led to a decrease in the notched Izod impact strength of the toughened PBTP/PC blends. DSDP was confirmed to be an effective stabiliser for the transesterification of PBTP and PC by means of FTIR, DSC, WAXD, and solvent extraction. 27 refs.

Title: DURABILITY OF CFRP ADHESIVE JOINTS IN HOT WATER
Page Range: p.577-586
Author(s): Kuriyama T; Mizoguchi M; Mori H
File size: 279K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
The effect of hot water immersion on weight, flexural properties, and mode 1 fracture toughness of the adhesive joint in carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites were investigated. It was found that the crack path changed with exposure time, and the crack tended to propagate along the interface in degraded specimens because of interfacial degradation. This resulted in a change in the crack path in adhesive joint specimens from adhesive layer to laminated layer. In addition, it was thought possible to distinguish between interface and resin crack propagation in carbon fibre reinforced plastics. 17 refs.

Title: INTERNAL STRUCTURE OF SHORT GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYAMIDE 66 INJECTION MOULDINGS BY ACOUSTIC VELOCITY MEASUREMENT
Page Range: p.587-598
Author(s): Kuriyama T; Mizoguchi M; Odaka S; Sorimachi H
File size: 706K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
The internal structure of short glass fibre reinforced polyamide 66 injection mouldings was investigated by optical microscopes and scanning electron microscopy. The injection mouldings were found to consist of four phases, which could be classified according to morphology and fibre orientations. The acoustic velocity was obtained, and was found to fit the difference in phases well. In particular, the core region could be recognised in the acoustic velocity map of the specimens. The acoustic velocity measurements were applied to understand the fracture behaviour of static tensile tests and the damage area could be seen in lower acoustic velocity. Consequently, the validity of acoustic velocity measurement in as non-destructive method of damage detection could be recommended. 14 refs.

Title: TRANSPORT CHARACTERISTICS OF FILLED POLY(ETHYLENE-CO-VINYL ACETATE) MEMBRANES
Page Range: p.599-617
Author(s): Dasan K P; Haseena A P; Unnikrishnan G; Alex R; Purushothaman E
File size: 297K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
This study investigates the influence of three types of carbon black: semi-reinforcing furnace (SRF), high-abrasion furnace (HAF) and intermediate super-abrasion furnace (ISAF) black on the transport characteristics of dicumyl peroxide-vulcanised EVA, using petrol, diesel and kerosene as probe molecules. The study forms part of a research effort to develop a lightweight, oil-resistant rubber product in an economical way. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of solvent transport through EVA were also examined. A sorption-desorption-resorption experiment was conducted to study the structural changes occurring in the polymer matrix during solvent transport. The article also contains a review of works relating to the diffusion properties of polymer membranes. 58 refs.

Title: INVESTIGATION OF MELT-INTERCALATED PET-CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.619-625
Author(s): Maoquan Yuan; Xiangjiang Pan; Chaoying Wan
File size: 115K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
Polyethylene terephthalate/montmorillonite (PETP/MMT) nanocomposites were prepared by melt intercalation. The MMT was organically modified by hexadecyl trimethyl ammonium bromide and polyethylene glycol prior to use. The microstructure of the nanocomposites was investigated by wide angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The results showed that the organic MMT layers were exfoliated and dispersed in nanoscale in the PETP matrix. Thermal and mechanical properties were studied. It was found that the tensile strength of PETP/MMT nanocomposites decreased with increasing MMT content. 7 refs.

Title: BIODEGRADATION STUDIES OF STARCH BASED COMPOSITE SUPERABSORBENTS
Page Range: p.627-635
Author(s): Sahoo P K; Rana P K; Sahoo A
File size: 201K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
A novel modified starch composite has been developed, consisting of the superabsorbent polymer system(SAP) (St-g-PAM)/MBA/sand white quartz. This SAP exhibited high superabsorbency, and can be used in agriculture and horticulture to promote efficient retention of water in dry and desert regions. The potential SAP composites were fully characterised by IR, TGA, and XRD, and found to exhibit higher thermal stability and crystallinity than the substrate starch. SEM was used to characterise the degradation of the composites. Biodegradation studies were also performed out on the SAP composites by various methods using activated sludge, soil burial and cultured media. The slow degradation during soil burial in comparison to other methods could make SAPs suitable for novel commercial uses, it is claimed. 21 refs.

Title: AN INTERESTING PHENOMENON IN DISPERSION POLYMERISATION OF STYRENE: THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CONVERSION AND QUANTITY OF MICROSPHERES
Page Range: p.637-642
Author(s): Diqiang Wang; He Li; Bailing Liu; Jianyun Chu
File size: 148K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 12
Issue No: No. 7

Abstract
The relationship is studied between conversion and the actual amount of microspheres in the dispersion polymerisation of styrene, and a discussion of the polymerisation mechanism and the microsphere preparation process is presented. The results of the investigation showed that the actual amount of microspheres was always lower than the conversion and the ratio of the two was different in different media. Results also showed that with the decreasing polarity and solubility parameter of the medium, the conversion of styrene gradually reduced and the character of the polymerisation was shown to be partly emulsion and partly solution. The average diameter and distribution of the microspheres in ethanol-water, ethanol, isopropanol and butanol were also investigated, and it was found that they increased with increasing polarity of the medium. 15 refs.

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