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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: SOLUTION RHEOLOGY OF POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)/SILICA HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.429-441
Author(s): Bandyopadhyay A; De Sarkar M; Bhowmick A K
File size: 207K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
The solution behaviour of polymer/silica hybrid nanocomposites was investigated using a Brookfield viscometer. The nanocomposites were prepared using the sol-gel technique with tetraethoxysilane as the precursor for silica. This paper is divided into two parts: the first part deals with the measurement of the solution viscosity of acrylic rubber/silica, epoxidised NR/silica and PVA/silica nanocomposites at room temperature (30 degrees C) at intervals of 24 h for 5 days. The second part of the paper reports on a detailed investigation of the solution behaviour of PVA/silica nanocomposites, as it registered the biggest rise in viscosity with time after 5 days of study. 22 refs.

Title: THE EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON THE MISCIBILITY OF BLENDS OF POLY 1-[4-(3-CARBOXY-4-HYDROXY-PHENYLAZO)BENZENE SULPHONAMIDO-1,2-ETHANEDIYL,SODIUM SALT)] (PAZO) AND POLYHYDROXYBUTYRATE (PHB)
Page Range: p.443-452
Author(s): Sharma L; Nishida K; Kanaya T
File size: 171K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
In order to meet the demand for an eco-friendly, cost-effective photonic material, blends were prepared of poly-1[4-(3-carboxy-4-hydroxy-phenylazo)benzene sulphonamide-1,2-ethanediyl, sodium salt)], (PAZO), and polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB). The behaviour was analysed of PAZO/PHB blends in various solvents, dependent on the solubility parameter calculations for amorphous PHB. Differential scanning calorimetry was used to determine the glass transition temperatures and to assess miscibility. This paper aims to address and establish the effect of the solvent on the miscibility of PHB/PAZO blends. It was established that a complex was formed at high PHB concentrations via the O-H bond of the PHB and PAZO in all solvents. 32 refs.

Title: EFFECTS OF FIBRE SURFACE TREATMENT ON DYNAMIC TENSILE PROPERTIES OF GLASS WOVEN FABRIC REINFORCED VINYLESTER COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.453-466
Author(s): Jang-Kyo Kim; Man-Lung Sham; Min-Seok Sohn; Shisheng Hu
File size: 330K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
This paper is a continuation of previous studies on the characterisation of mechanical and fracture properties of glass fibre vinyl ester matrix composites with a controlled fibre surface treatment. The mechanical responses of composites under impact tensile loading are compared with the corresponding static behaviour so as to identify the sensitivity of interface properties on strain rate dependent tensile behaviour. The effect of the weave structure was also specifically evaluated by loading the composites in the weft and warp directions of the woven fabric reinforcement. Results indicated that both the ductility and the strength of the composites increased with increasing strain rate. The tensile strength was lower and the failure strain was higher in the weft direction than in the warp direction, because of excessive crimping in the former direction. The tensile strength in general increased with increasing silane concentration, for the majority of strain rates studied. The influence of fibre surface treatment on the impact tensile strength and modulus of composites were found to be functionally similar, confirming the fibre-matrix interphase properties on composite fracture behaviour at high strain rates. 30 refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF REACTIVE GRAFT COPOLYMERS OF POLY(BUTYL ACRYLATE) AND CELLULOSE
Page Range: p.467-477
Author(s): Chauhan G S; Singh B; Kumar S; Chinkara A
File size: 190K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Butyl acrylate was graft copolymerised onto cellulose extracted from pine needles by a simultaneous gamma radiation initiation method. Optimum conditions for the maximum graft yield are reported. Polymerisation and grafting parameters such as percentage grafting, percentage grafting efficiency, rate of polymerisation, homopolymerisation and graft copolymerisation were also determined. Grafted cellulose was further functionalised to produce poly(acryloyl hydroxylamine) [Cell-g-poly(CONHOH)] so as to generate active (-CONHOH)groups on the cellulose backbone. Graft copolymers were also characterised by elemental analysis by FTIR and by a swelling study. In addition, an attempt was made to study the sorption of ferrous ion and copper ions as model metal ions onto the candidate copolymers in order to investigate their selectivity in metal ion sorption and to determine the effect on metal ion sorption of the structural aspects of the hydrogels and other functionalised graft copolymers, so as to identify their end-uses. 11 refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF CHOPPED FIBRE LENGTH ON THE MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF SILK FIBRE-REINFORCED POLY(BUTYLENE SUCCINATE) BIOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.479-488
Author(s): Sang Muk Lee; Seong Ok Han; Donghwan Cho; Won Ho Park; Seung Goo Lee
File size: 171K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Chopped silk fibre biocomposites based on polybutylene succinate (PBS) were prepared, and the influence of the fibre length on the mechanical and thermal properties of the biocomposite were investigated. In particular, tensile and flexural properties, thermal stability, thermal expansion and dynamic mechanical properties were evaluated. The results are claimed to demonstrate that the chopped silk fibres play an effective role in improving the mechanical properties of PBS in the present system. At a fixed fibre loading of 40 wt% the tensile strength and modulus of the PBS control were improved by 69% and 228% respectively, in comparison with those of the biocomposite reinforced with 25.4 mm silk fibres. Improvements in thermal properties are also reported. 14 refs.

Title: ON THE TRANSIENT HYGROSCOPIC STRESSES IN POLYMER MATRIX LAMINATED COMPOSITES PLATES WITH CYCLIC AND UNSYMMETRIC ENVIRONMENTAL CONDITIONS
Page Range: p.489-503
Author(s): Tounsi A; Bouazza M; Meftah S; Adda-Bedia E
File size: 225K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
This work aims to provide data on the long-term behaviour of aircraft structural components based on polymer matrix composites, subjected to severe environmental conditions. The emphasis of the research is on their ability to withstand cyclic variations of moisture and temperature, which induces transient residual stresses within the plies. Such stresses need to be taken into consideration in the design of composite aircraft structures. In this paper, the transient hygroscopic stresses induced by cyclic and unsymmetric environmental loadings which simulate an aeronautical application, are investigated. It is shown that the heterogeneity and anisotropy of such plates generally result in transient stress distributions which are very different from the equilibrium stress distribution. Some stacking sequences exhibited important stresses within the plies, which need to be taken into account in the design of composite structures submitted to a moist environment. 17 refs.

Title: THERMODYNAMIC AND KINETIC CONSIDERATIONS - EFFECT OF ORGANIC SILOXANE ON MMA POLYMERIZATION
Page Range: p.505-512
Author(s): Xiaobo Deng; Shunsheng Cao; Bailing Liu; Songjun Li
File size: 114K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
This study discusses the reasons for an increase or decrease in the conversion and polymerisation rates of siloxane-acrylate copolymers, and highlights some extra information related to the copolymerisation process. The effects of 3-(methacryloxypropyl)-trimethoxysilane (MATS) and vinyl trimethoxysilane (VTMOS) on methyl methacrylate (MMA) polymerisation are thus investigated. The two co-monomers appear to show opposite effects. The polymerisation shows a high rate of polymerisation and extend of conversion in the presence of MATS, than in its absence. However, a lower rate of polymerisation and extent of conversion are obtained in the presence of VTMOS. The difference is explained in terms of the different roles of the co-monomers. The increase in the rate of polymerisation and conversion with MATS was attributed to the higher reactivity of monomers and the lower conversion with VTMOS was attributed to the electronic effects associated with VTMOS which can decrease the electric density of the active double bond in MMA, and therefore deactivate the polymerisation. Further investigation indicated that the change of free energy in the polymerisation with MATS was lower than without MATS. In addition, monomer reactivity in the presence of MATS was higher than in its absence. The decrease in monomer reactivity is thought to be responsible for increasing the rate of polymerisation. 24 refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISTICS OF REACTIVE BLENDS OF PHOSPHATE-CONTAINING MALEIMIDE AND EPOXY RESINS
Page Range: p.513-524
Author(s): Wei-Jye Shu; Hsiu-Jung Chiu
File size: 194K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Novel phosphorous-containing maleimide monomers were blended with epoxy resins to elucidate the influence of maleimide segments on the physical properties of epoxy resins. Three kinds of phosphate-containing maleimide (PMI) monomers, namely, diethyl (4-(N-maleimido) phenyl) phosphate (4P) diphenyl (4-(N-maleimido) phenyl) phosphate (PP) and diethyl (2,6-dibromo-4-(N-maleimido)phenyl) phosphate (BrP) were synthesised and blended with a bisphenol type epoxy in order to study their potential as reactive flame retardants. Increasing the PMI contents was shown to reduce the storage modulus, the Tg and the tensile strength, whilst maintaining good thermal stability. 30 refs.

Title: MAGNESIUM DIOXIDE/EPOXY RESIN NANOCOMPOSITE PREPARED BY A NOVEL METHOD. BRIEF COMMUNICATION
Page Range: p.525-527
Author(s): Cheng Yiyun; Cui Ronghui; He Pingsheng
File size: 91K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
A new method of preparing magnesium hydroxide/epoxy resin nanocomposites is presented. An epoxy resin micro-emulsion is taken as a micro-reactor for the formation of magnesium hydroxide nano-crystals. After the reaction, the collected epoxy proved to be a composite with embedded nano-magnesium hydroxide. Transmission electron microscopy indicated that the magnesium hydroxide nano-crystals were dispersed uniformly n cured epoxy resin matrix. It is claimed that the composite could find wide application in optical, electronic and other devices. 13 refs.

Title: FLAME RETARDANCY OF NANOCOMPOSITES - FROM RESEARCH TO REALITY. REVIEW
Page Range: p.529-538
Author(s): Kabelwerk Eupen AG
File size: 156K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 13
Issue No: No. 5

Abstract
Nanocomposites incorporating modified layered silicates as fillers dispersed at the nm-level within a polymer matrix are examined with respect to their inherent flame retardancy. The flame retardancy mechanism is reported to be based on the char formation and its structure. The char insulates the polymer from heat and acts as a barrier, reducing the escape of volatile gases from the polymer combustion. In addition, the combination of organoclays with traditional flame retardants is shown to be a means of further improving the flame retardant properties of polymers. The cone calorimeter is used as a tool for the investigation of flame retardancy. 9 refs.

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