Polymer Journals

Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: AFM CHARACTERIZATION OF INTERPHASE PROPERTIES OF SILVER-COATED CARBON FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.123-133
Author(s): He J M; Huang Y D
File size: 306K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Atomic force microscopy in the force modulation mode was used to study the local mechanical properties of uncoated and silver-coated carbon fibre/epoxy composite systems. The aim of the study was to achieve an understanding of the effect of the silver coating on the interfacial properties of the composites. The work is reported with reference to three stages: detection of the fibre surface topography and roughness before forming the composites; probing the stiffness, thickness and morphology of the interphase regions of the composites directly; and relating the microstructural details of the interphase to the fibre pull-out behaviour of the composite systems. The carbon fibres surfaces were silver-coated using an electroless deposition technique. At a deposition time of 2 min, it was found that the maximum interfacial shear strength was 36.2 MPa, 17.9% higher than that of the uncoated specimens. 19 refs.

Title: DYNAMIC PUNCH SHEAR CHARACTERIZATION OF TWILL WEAVE GRAPHITE/EPOXY COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.135-143
Author(s): Hosur M V; Islam S M W; Jeelani S
File size: 331K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
In this study, the high strain rate response of twill weave graphite/epoxy composites under punch shear mode was characterised at room and elevated temperatures. 24-layer laminates of twill weave graphite fibres were fabricated by a vacuum assisted resin infusion moulding process. Results indicated that the dynamic shear stress increased with strain rate at all temperatures. However, due to increased ductility, the peak stress decreased with temperature. The threshold peak stress is reported to be approximately 100 MPa. Due to the increased ductility and degradation of the fibre-matrix interface, the severity of the failure decreased with increasing temperature, and it was thus concluded that the dynamic response was dependent on the sample temperature. 14 refs.

Title: CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOUR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE COPOLYMER/SILICON DIOXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.145-153
Author(s): Minjie Chen; Yong Zhang; Chaoying Wan; Yinxi Xhang
File size: 143K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Polypropylene copolymer/silicon dioxide nanocomposites were prepared by melt extrusion in a twin-screw extruder. The isothermal crystallisation behaviour of the composite was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. It was found that the silicon dioxide restricted the mobility of the polypropylene copolymer molecular chains and retarded the crystallisation of the propylene copolymer component of the composite. A small amount of silicone dioxide ( 3 phr) was found to be sufficient to increase the tensile strength and elongation at break, and the results of thermogravimetric analysis indicated that a small amount could in addition, greatly improve the thermal stability of the composite. 26 refs.

Title: PULTRUDED HYBRID FIBRE (GLASS/CARBON) REINFORCED UNSATURATED POLYESTER COMPOSITES: MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
Page Range: p.155-163
Author(s): Chin-Hsing Chen; Kung-Chin Lien
File size: 168K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
This paper presents a proprietary process for the manufacture of pultruded hybrid fibre (glass/carbon) reinforced unsaturated polyester composites. To investigate the effect of reinforcement type and content on the properties, composites with various fibre contents were fabricated. Flexural strength, flexural modulus, notched Izod impact strength, dynamic storage modulus, dynamic loss tangent and weight loss of pultruded composites were measured. The aim of the investigation was to obtain the best mechanical and thermal properties and the optimum priced composites for pultrusion. 16 refs.

Title: REVEALING THE NANO AND MICRO MECHANO-STRUCTURAL COLLAGEN POLYMER BONE RELATIONSHIP
Page Range: p.165-168
Author(s): Sharma L; Sakakura S; Pezzotti G
File size: 197K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Studies have shown that the bone's ability to form microcracks is advantageous, since these cracks absorb energy and are less likely to weaken the bone. Pinching, a degrading phenomenon in bone caused by the longitudinal collagen fibrils, occurs during the cyclic loading of certain materials, causing either flexural cracks or bone degradation, increasing the stresses on the microcracks. The response of the collagen fibrils to an applied stress is investigated, and the microstructure of bone during microcracking is analysed. 7 refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF GRAFT COPOLYMERS OF SILK SERICIN AND METHYL METHACRYLATE
Page Range: p.169-174
Author(s): Yan Song; Deqing Wei
File size: 129K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
In order to overcome some of the disadvantages of silk sericin (SS), such as instability in water, poor solubility in common organic solvents, and poor resistance to microbial attack, its chemical modification was carried out by the grafting of vinyl monomers, using ceric ammonium nitrate as an initiator. The SS-g-PMMA graft copolymers were characterised by FTIR spectrometry and SEM. The image of SEM showed that the surface morphology of grafted SS was much rougher than that of ungrafted SS due to the incorporation of PMMA fragments. The analytical results of the orthogonal experimental design showed that the strongest effect on grafting efficiency was the concentration of monomer, and the weakest was the reaction time. This led to a further study of the effects of different factors on graft copolymerisation. In addition, a possible reaction mechanism was proposed for the graft copolymerisation. 18 refs.

Title: TORSION TRANSMISSION CAPACITY OF A HYBRID ALUMINIUM/COMPOSITE DRIVE SHAFT
Page Range: p.175-184
Author(s): Mutasher S A; Sapuan S M; Sahari B B; Hamouda A M S
File size: 205K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
The results are discussed of experiments carried out to study the static torsion capability of a hybrid aluminium/composite driveshaft. A hybrid shaft was fabricated using a wetted filament winding method by winding glass and carbon fibres onto aluminium tube with different winding angles, numbers of layers and stacking sequence. The torque-angle-of-twist response was obtained and the failure modes of the hybrid shaft were studied. For a hybrid shaft wound with fibre configurations of 90/+45/-45/90 and +45/-45/90/90, the torque-angle-of-twist response results were similar, and this satisfied the Classical Lamination Plate Theory. The torque capacity increased approximately 14 fold for the case of an aluminium tube wound with six layers of the carbon fibre and a winding angle of 45 degrees compared to the aluminium tube alone. 12 refs.

Title: MODIFICATION OF WOOD FLOUR WITH MALEIC ANHYDRIDE FOR MANUFACTURE OF WOOD-POLYMER COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.185-194
Author(s): Nenkova S; Dobrilova C; Natov M; Vasileva S; Velev P
File size: 355K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
This work demonstrates the effects of treating wood flour with maleic anhydride in composites based on polypropylene. The modifications to the wood flour were carried out with a 10% solution of maleic anhydride in acetone in the presence of benzoyl peroxide and dicumene hydroperoxide. Lignin and cellulose were isolated from the wood flour and modified by the same method as the wood flour. They were characterised by FTIR spectroscopy, and it was proved that there was a chemical reaction between the wood components and the maleic anhydride. This was confirmed by chemical analysis and by a determination of the hydroxyl groups in unmodified and modified wood flour. Composites of PP and modified wood flour were obtained and studied by SEM, TEM, DMA and mechanical analysis and testing. An improvement in adhesion between the polymer and the modified wood flour was found. 20 refs.

Title: ELECTRICALLY-CONDUCTING POLYOLEFIN COMPOSITES CONTAINING DISPERSE AND FIBRE MATERIALS AS CONDUCTIVE SECONDARY PHASES
Page Range: p.195-202
Author(s): Atanasov A; Koleva D
File size: 301K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Research was carried out on electrically conducting polyolefin-based composites with various disperse and fibre-conducting materials as secondary phases. Electrically conductive composites based on UHMWPE, HDPE, and PP were prepared, which contained fillers such as copper particles, graphite, carbon fibres and the polyaniline complex with dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid (DBSA) introduced as the secondary phases. The conductivities of the composites as a function of the degree of filling and of their morphology were studied, using optical and electron scanning microscopy. 11 refs.

Title: CHITOSAN-G-POLY(ACRYLIC ACID)/KAOLIN SUPERABSORBENT COMPOSITE: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION
Page Range: p.203-211
Author(s): Pourjavadi A; Mahdavinia G R
File size: 104K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
A novel superabsorbent composite based on chitosan was prepared by graft copolymerisation of acrylic acid (AA) in the presence of kaolin powder using methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as crosslinking agent and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator. The synthetic variables (AA, MBA, and APS concentration, and the kaolin amount) affecting the water absorbency of the resulting superabsorbent composite were studied. Evidence of grafting and kaolin interaction was obtained by comparing the FTIR spectra of the initial substrates with that of the superabsorbent composite. The kaolin-organic polymer linkage was confirmed by a new absorption band in the composite spectrum at 1722 cm¯¹. The effect of the amount of kaolin showed that increasing this parameter caused the water absorbency of the superabsorbent composite to decrease. The effect of pH on the water absorbency of the superabsorbent was also studied. 17 refs.

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