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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: WOOD SAWDUST FIBRES AS A SECONDARY FILLER IN CARBON BLACK FILLED NR VULCANIZATES
Page Range: p.331-347
Author(s): Sombatsompop N; Kantala C; Wimolmala E
File size: 314K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
An investigation is reported which aims to identify the optimum contents of wood sawdust fibre and silane coupling agent to be introduced into natural rubber compounded with carbon black. A range of composite properties are considered including cure characteristics, % bound rubber, crosslink density, sorption and desorption behaviour, tensile modulus, elongation at break, tensile and tear strengths, hardness and morphological properties. Results indicated that the overall mechanical properties of the NR composite improved with increasing carbon black content, but deteriorated with a sawdust content up to 40 phr. Addition of further sawdust was recommended as an economical benefit to industries as the properties of the natural rubber/carbon black composites remained unchanged with increasing sawdust content above 40 phr sawdust fibre. Addition of a silane coupling agent to the NR vulcanisates containing 40 phr wood sawdust fibres and 45 phr carbon black at 0.5 1% of wood sawdust, was shown to improve the mechanical properties. It is claimed that the explanations given in this paper are unique in that they refer to bound rubber, crosslink density and rubber-filler phase continuity in the composites and to a change in composite rigidity. 37 refs.

Title: CYLINDRICAL ORTHOTROPIC THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY OF SPIRAL WOVEN COMPOSITES. PART II: A MATHEMATICAL MODEL FOR THEIR EFFECTIVE TRANSVERSE THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
Page Range: p.349-364
Author(s): Chang-Hsuan Chiu; Chao-Chuan Cheng; Chung-Li Hwan; Tsai K H
File size: 418K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
This paper is the second in a series on the cylindrical orthotropic thermal conductivity of spiral woven composites. It presents a study of the modelling of the effective transverse thermal conductivity of the spiral woven fabric composite. And idealised model was built by idealising the yarn undulations into lineal segments. The mathematical model of the effective transverse thermal conductivity was formulated as functions of the radial position. Using thermal and geometrical parameters, predictions of the effective thermal conductivities for four kinks of spiral woven fabric composites were carried out. It is reported that a fairly good agreement was found between results predicted using the present and previously published models. 28 refs.

Title: THE CHARACTERIZATION OF BIODEGRADABLE POLYBUTYLENE SUCCINATE/STARCH BLENDS USING HDPE-G-ACRYLIC ACID AS A COMPATIBILIZER
Page Range: p.365-376
Author(s): Lai S M; Wu C S; Liao H T
File size: 261K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
Blends of polybutylene succinate, (PBSU) and starch were examined to ascertain the influence of the compatibiliser HDPE-g-acrylic acid on properties. The blends contained 5 phr of compatibiliser. X-ray diffraction studies indicated some disruption of the crystal structure of PBSU with the introduction of starch, and a decrease in the melting temperature was also noted with increasing amounts of starch. The added starch is reported to have disrupted the intermolecular hydrogen bonding interactions between the PBSU chains in the matrix. The relatively low heat stability of starch influenced the thermal stability of the blends. A slight increase in tensile strength was observed when the compatibiliser was incorporated in the blends, and enhanced interaction was deduced from SEM observation. The surface erosion shown in the optical micrographs was accompanied by a visible growth of microorganisms, particularly at high concentrations of starch. The rate of biodegradation was assessed based on the decrease in tensile strength during 4 weeks of soil burial. The weight loss increased with increasing treatment times and with starch content during extended soil burial. 26 refs.

Title: ELECTRICAL PROPERTIES AND CRYSTALLISATION BEHAVIOUR OF POLYPROPYLENE/CARBON BLACK COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.377-390
Author(s): Ying Li; Shifeng Wang; Yong Zhang; Yinxi Zhang
File size: 320K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
The electrical properties and crystallisation behaviour were investigated for four different kinds of carbon black filled PP composites, prepared by the melt mixing method. All showed typical characteristics of percolation but noticeably different percolation thresholds. When using carbon black with a higher structure, smaller particle diameter and larger surface area, the composites showed better electrical conductivity and a lower percolation threshold. The crystallisation behaviour was studied using DSC. Non-isothermal crystallisation parameters showed that the carbon black particles were able to act as nucleating agents which accelerated the crystallisation rate. Isothermal crystallisation kinetics studies indicated that the crystallisation kinetic constant and the rate of crystallisation of the PP/carbon black composites were higher than those of PP. The values of the Avrami exponent indicated three-dimensional spherulitic growth in a spherical form. The free energy of chain folding for PP crystallisation of the carbon black reinforced PP composites was lower than that of PP itself, and decreased further with increasing carbon black content. 40 refs.

Title: THERMAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ACRYLONITRILE-BUTADIENE (NBR) LATEX REINFORCED NONWOVEN FABRIC COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.391-402
Author(s): Kumar M N S; Siddaramaiah; Jagannath J H; Bawa A S
File size: 287K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
The fabrication of composites by impregnating jut non-woven fabric in NBR latex is described. The composites were characterised by thermogravimetric analysis and by scanning electron microscopy to understand the thermal stability and morphology respectively. All the composites were stable to 280 deg.C, and thermal degradation of the jute fabric and composites was found to proceed in two steps, unlike NBR. A degradation kinetic parameter was obtained for each stage of degradation of the jute, NBR and their composites using Broido, Coats-Redfern and Horowitz-Metzger methods. Cryogenically fractured specimens were used to analyse the surface morphology of the jute fabric and composites by scanning electron microscopy, which revealed that the incorporation off NBR increased the bonded area at fibre crossovers and intersections. 27 refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF ASPHALTS MODIFIED WITH SBS/ORGANOBENTONITE BLENDS
Page Range: p.403-411
Author(s): Yun-Pu Wang; Dong-Jie Liu; Yu-Feng Li; You-Peng Wang; Jing-Min Gao
File size: 217K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
The high temperature storage stability of SBS modified asphalts was improved by dispersing both organobentonite and silane coupling agents into asphalt. Improvements were also noted in rheological properties and after-ageing properties. The improvement in high temperature storage stability was attributed to the organobentonite and silane coupling agent decreasing the differences in densities between SBS and asphalt. It was found that the optimum amount of organobentonite was 2% and 1% of silane coupling agent. 28 refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF COMPOSITES OF ULTRA-HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLYETHYLENE WITH CARBON FIBRES OR FIBRE MONOCRYSTALS
Page Range: p.413-420
Author(s): Atanasov A; Koleva D
File size: 101K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
The aim of this work is to study the preparation and characterisation of composite materials based on UHMWPE, carbon fibre (including modified carbon fibre), and fibre monocrystals of alkali titanates, in order to improve some of their properties. The unmodified and thermally modified carbon fibres did not have any reinforcing effect on the tensile strength of the composites, and only an insignificant increase was observed with fibre the fibre monocrystals in the range 0.5 1.0% w/w. Nevertheless, the composites obtained with carbon fibres proved to have better characteristics than the unfilled polymer. These included electrical conductivity, improved thermal stability and lower coefficient of friction, lower temperature coefficient of linear expansion and lower shrinkage. UHMWPE/fibre monocrystal composites also showed better characteristics than the unfilled UHMWPE, especially the Vicat softening point. 19 refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERISATION OF ANTISTATIC NYLON-6 FILLED WITH ZnO WHISKERS
Page Range: p.421-431
Author(s): Ming Liang Luo; Guang Rui Lao; Ji Hui He; Jian Qing Zhao; Wei Zhuang Chen
File size: 247K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
Nylon-6 antistatic composites filled with zinc oxide whiskers were prepared by melt blending. The whiskers were treated with a coupling agent. Electrical, mechanical and rheological properties were determined and the effect of the zinc oxide whisker loading on these properties, was determined. The structure of the composites, their morphology, thermal properties and crystallisation behaviour were characterised by FTIR, SEM, TGA, WAXD and DSC. Results showed that the whiskers were well dispersed in the nylon-6 matrix. Crystallinity, melt temperature, tensile strength and hardness decreased gradually with increasing whisker content, but the antistatic performance, processing properties and thermal stability improved. 24 refs.

Title: PREDICTION AND DETECTION OF FAILURES IN LAMINATED COMPOSITE MATERIALS USING NEURAL NETWORKS A REVIEW
Page Range: p.433-441
Author(s): Addin A O; Sapuan S M; Mahdi E; Othman M
File size: 105K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 14
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
This article describes combined computational techniques with the use of neural networks as a quantitative method, and natural frequencies, electrical conductivity, and lamb waves as non-destructive methods used to identify failures in laminated composite materials. Neural networks demonstrated robust and uncontroversial capabilities for complex failure detection and prediction in laminated composite materials with small errors. These failures include delamination, matrix cracking, fibre fracture and debonding. The presence of these failures is reported in terms of size, location and shape. 51 refs.

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