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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: THE DESIGN AND MANUFACTURE OF ADVANCED 3D WOVEN HYBRID COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Page Range: p.597-604
Author(s): Quinn J P; Mcllhagger A T; Mcllhagger R; Ridgeway K; Ganeshmal M; King R S; Stewart G
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
The viability and potential benefits of three-dimensional (3D) woven textile reinforcements with metallic yarns integrated into the structure were examined. Hybrid 3D woven composite materials were produced using carbon fibre and aluminium wire, and subsequently impregnated with a two-part aerospace epoxy resin system. The areal density and hence the preform weight increased on introduction of the aluminium wire, whereas the flexural strength and modulus showed little change. The post-impact compressive strength was significantly greater than that of a carbon-fibre composite. 19 refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CONDUCTIVITY OF POLYANILINE/SiO2 COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.605-610
Author(s): Qunwei Tang; Jihuai Wu; Haiyong Ao; Hui Sun; Lin Lin; Jianming Lin
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
A novel polyaniline/silica composite with a conductivity of 0.26 S/cm was prepared by polymerisation of aniline monomer in the presence of ultrafine silica powder in aqueous solution containing hydrochloric acid as a dopant and ammonium persulphate (APS) as the initiator and oxidant. The reaction conditions were optimised at a mass ratio of SiO"2 to aniline of 20.0, a molar ratio of APS to aniline of 1.0, and a reaction temperature of 25 deg.C for 6 h. The conductivity of the composites remained fairly stable on storage for 50 days. 32 refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND STABILITY OF COPPER PARTICLES FORMED USING AMINO-TERMINATED DENDRIMER AS TEMPLATE
Page Range: p.611-617
Author(s): Xiuzhen Wei; Baoku Zhu; Youyi Xu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Amine-terminated seventh-generation dendrimers (G7-NH"2) were synthesised and used to study the interior and exterior template processes for the preparation of copper particles. The absorption properties of the G7-NH2(Cu^2^+)"n complexes and the morphology of G7-NH"2(Cu)n composite particles were examined by means of UV spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy, respectively. Unlike the case in which dendrimers with hydroxyl end-groups are used, copper particles could be prepared by the exterior template process. Both the size of the copper particles and their tendency to aggregate increased with increasing Cu^2^+/G7-NH"2 molar ratio. The copper particles were stable under oxygen-free conditions and could easily be oxidised to G7-NH"2(Cu^2^+) complex ions in the presence of oxygen. 30 refs.

Title: COMPOSITES OF RICE HUSK/WHEAT STRAW WITH PMDI RESIN AND POLYPROPYLENE
Page Range: p.619-625
Author(s): Frounchi M; Dadbin S; Jahanbakhsh J; Janat-Alipour M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Composites of wheat straw and, optionally, rice husk fibres with polymeric methylene diphenyl diisocyanate resin (pMDI) as a binder made by compression moulding (Type I particleboard) and composites of rice husk and polypropylene made by extrusion and injection moulding (Type II particleboard) were prepared and characterised by a range of methods. In Type I particleboard, the physical and mechanical properties improved with increasing binder content until an optimum level of binder content was reached. Particleboards made of wheat straw blended with 6% pMDI showed a maximum modulus of elasticity. Dimensional stability and water absorption of particle-boards made by combining wheat straw and rice husks were superior to those made only from wheat straw. In Type II particleboards, the nonpolar polypropylene had poor affinity with rice husk, resulting in poor interfacial adhesion and poor mechanical properties. The interfacial adhesion was improved by using trimethoxy(vinyl)silane as a coupling agent and maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (MAPP) as a compatibiliser. This allowed effective transfer of mechanical stress through boundary regions, as demonstrated by an improvement in the mechanical properties. The best impact strength result was achieved with a combination of 1.5 wt% silane and 5 wt% MAPP in all-rice husk composites. 17 refs.

Title: MORPHOLOGY AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYETHYLENE/POLYSTYRENE BLENDS
Page Range: p.627-632
Author(s): Kossentini-Kallel T; Massardier-Nageotte V; Jaziri M; Gerard J-F; Elleuch B
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
The evolution of the morphology and rheological properties of polyethylene/polystyrene blends with various compositions was examined over the full range of compositions. The blends were prepared by using a single-screw extruder to simulate a convenient industrial process. Adhesion between the two phases was poor. The morphology and rheological properties of the blends were dependent on their composition. 18 refs.

Title: MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLY(LACTIC ACID)/STARCH/ MONTMORILLONITE BIODEGRADABLE BLENDS
Page Range: p.633-638
Author(s): Jie Ren; Zichao Liu; Tianbin Ren
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Biodegradable blends of poly(lactic acid) (PLA), starch, and montmorillonite (MMT) were prepared in a twin-screw extruder and the effects of MMT content on the mechanical and thermal properties of the blends were studied. The microstructure of the composites was examined by means of wide-angle X-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The blends had a stacked and intercalated/flocculated structure. Blends of PLA and starch with MMT showed a lower crystallisation temperature than those lacking MMT, suggesting that MMT facilitates the crystallisation of PLA. The melting temperature of PLA was not significantly affected by the addition of MMT. The blends had a high tensile strength of approximately 40 MPa and a high flexural strength of approximately 80 MPa. The maximum tensile and flexural strengths were obtained at an MMT content of 2 wt%. The absorption of water by blends containing MMT was lower than those lacking MMT. 25 refs.

Title: CHARACTERISATION AND PROPERTIES OF ABS NANOCOMPOSITE PREPARED FROM FUNCTIONALISED MONTMORILLONITE MASTERBATCHES
Page Range: p.639-646
Author(s): Ying Xi'a; Xiaowei Duan; Jianfeng Li; Jianzhu Han; Xigao Jian
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Exfoliated acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (ABS) nanocomposites were produced in two steps by preparing of a functionalised montmorillonite masterbatch (FMMT) that was then melt blended with ABS. The FMMT was prepared by adding acrylamide monomer (AA), organic-MMT (OMMT), and dibenzoyl peroxide (BPO) as an initiator to a solution of ABS carrier in 1,2-dichloroethane. IR spectroscopy, x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy showed that AA was successfully grafted onto ABS. When the FMMT was blended with ABS, the resulting ABS/FMMT composite had an exfoliated morphology. The thermal properties of the ABS/FMMT nanocomposite were superior to those of pure ABS and ABS/OMMT nanocomposites prepared by direct melt blending of OMMT with ABS. The increase in interfacial interaction and compatibility between the ABS matrix and the FMMT resulted in a marked improvement in the mechanical properties. The tensile modulus and strength were superior to those of ABS/ OMMT, and the decrease in impact strength caused by OMMT was moderated. 29 refs.

Title: MECHANICAL CHARACTERISATION OF POLYURETHANE/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.647-652
Author(s): Rihayat T; Saari M; Mahmood M H; Yunus W M Z W; Suraya A R; Dahlan K Z H M; Sapuan S M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Polyurethane/clay nanocomposites were synthesised from renewable sources. A polyether polyol, prepared from palm oil-based oleic acid and glycerol, was used to produce a polyurethane by treatment with an isocyanate with dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid as a catalyst and emulsifier. An unmodified clay (kunipia-F) was treated with cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB-mont) or octadodecylamine (ODA-mont). The d-spacings in CTAB-mont and ODA-mont were 1.571 and 1.798 nm, respectively. The organoclays were intercalated in the polyurethane, as confirmed by a wide angle x-ray diffraction studies. Addition of 1-5 wt% of organoclay produced the most significant improvements in tensile properties and glass transition temperature. 19 refs.

Title: THE CRASHWORTHINESS BEHAVIOUR OF FILAMENT WOUND HEXAGONAL GLASS FIBRE EPOXY COMPOSITE TUBES
Page Range: p.653-654
Author(s): Alkbir M F M; Hamouda A M S; Sapuan S M; Mahdi E
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 15
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
The crashworthiness parameters with reference to the axial direction was examined for filament-wound hexagonal glass/epoxy composite tubes 45-mm long and with a hexagonal angle of 45 degrees for use in automobiles. The energy-absorption properties and load-carrying capacity of the resulting assemblies were determined under a quasi-static axial compressive load. The quasi-static axial crushing behaviour of the composite tubes was markedly affected by the post-crushing stage; the tubes showed high crashworthiness parameters. 1 ref.

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