Polymer Journals

Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: MECHANICAL, OPTICAL AND BARRIER PROPERTIES OF PA6/NANOCLAY-BASED SINGLE- AND MULTILAYER BLOWN FILMS
Page Range: p.349-358
Author(s): Poisson C; Guerengomba J; Lacrampe M-F; Krawczak P; Gupta B; Miri V; Lefebvre J-M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Nanocomposite single layer films prepared from polyamide-6 (PA6) or PA6 nanocomposites, or multilayer films prepared from either of the same two polymers with polyethylene (PE) and a bonding layer of maleic anhydride grafted PE, were examined for their potential application in food packaging. Films were blown and were characterised for their mechanical properties, optical performance and oxygen impermeability. Processing conditions only affected optical properties, but significant improvements were gained by using the PA6 nanocomposite film in all areas. Films were examined using differential scanning calorimetry, wide angle X-ray scattering, oxygen permeability measurements, gloss, haze, optical clarity and tensile properties. 25 refs.

Title: SMART POLYMERIC MEMBRANES: SELF-CONTROL OF PORE SIZE INDUCED BY VARIATIONS IN PH
Page Range: p.359-363
Author(s): Estrada R; Rodriguez R; Castano V M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Properties of porous membranes in which the pore size could be adjusted by pH conditions were discussed. Scanning electron microscopy was used to illustrate the effect. Membranes were prepared from cellulose acetate, and a non-linear mathematical model was designed and described to explain the pore size control. Similar behaviour with respect to temperature was also mentioned and the membranes could be used to simulate natural body organs such as the kidney or liver that also adjust pore size with the prevailing conditions. 18 refs.

Title: MONITORING THE DEGREE OF CONVERSION OF CYCLIC BUTYLENE TEREPHTHALATE USING DIELECTRIC ANALYSIS
Page Range: p.365-373
Author(s): Archer B; McIlhagger A T; McIlhagger R; Quinn J P; Mallon P; Bradaigh C O
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
The use of dielectric analysis for monitoring the degree of conversion of cyclic butylene terephthalate to polybutylene terephthalate (PBT) was described and discussed. Dielectric analysis is normally used for monitoring the degree of cure in thermosets. Both glass fibre reinforced and unreinforced materials were evaluated as part of a study into moulding large parts such as wind turbine blades. By adjustments in the process cycle, parameters were identified for optimisation of moulding cycles for PBT parts, but care was necessary to ensure correct choice of frequency for events that were frequency dependent. Samples were also evaluated by gel permeation chromatography, differential scanning calorimetry, and thermogravimetric analysis. 25 refs.

Title: FAST FUNCTIONALISATION OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP) BY ULTRAVIOLET IRRADIATION AND COMPATIBILISED PP/CALCIUM CARBONATE COMPOSITE
Page Range: p.375-378
Author(s): Shushan Deng; Qianping Ran; Shishan Wu; Jian Shen
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Ultraviolet irradiation at high environmental temperatures in air was used to introduce single- and double-bonded oxygen atoms onto polypropylene (PP) in PP powder form. The polymer, and composites incorporating the treated PP, were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle measurements, gel content determination, melt flow rate, tensile properties and impact strength. It was shown that melt temperature of the PP decreased whilst melt flow, crystallinity and hydrophilicity of surfaces increased. Compatibility and dispersion of filler in composites of PP and calcium carbonate were improved when the irradiated PP was used as compatibiliser. Tensile and impact properties of composites were increased. 12 refs.

Title: WATER ABSORPTION OF LIGNOCELLULOSIC PHENOLIC COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.379-387
Author(s): Jau Choy Lai; Ani F N; Hassan A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Water absorption of phenolic resin composite materials filled with palm shell flour, rice husk flour or coconut shell flour was investigated with respect to particle size and filler content. Samples were prepared on a two-roll mill and were compression moulded. Kinetics of water absorption were determined and were shown to be Fickian in character, with water absorption rate and quantity increasing only with filler content. 45 refs.

Title: THE INFLUENCE OF IRON/IRON OXIDE MIXTURE ON THE MOLECULAR FLUCTUATION NETWORKS OF POLYBUTYLENETEREPHTHALATE
Page Range: p.389-394
Author(s): Ozden S; Borukayev T A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
The effects on impact strength of adding a mixture of a highly dispersed iron oxide and elemental iron to polybutylene terephthalate were investigated, and significant improvements were observed. The reasons for these improvements were investigated using fractal analysis, and it was shown that a reduction of free volume occurred in the polymer and increased the density of the fluctuation network of molecular chains, the packing of the molecules and the interphase between the crystalline and amorphous regions. Most improvement was achieved at a filler level of 0.05 percent. 32 refs.

Title: EFFECT OF SILICA SOL-MODIFIED NANO-CALCIUM CARBONATE ON POLYURETHANE(UREA) DISPERSIONS AND THEIR FILMS
Page Range: p.395-400
Author(s): Yang Dongya; Qiu Fengxian
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
An in situ dispersion method was used and described for the preparation of nanocomposites of polyurethane-urea (PUU) and silica sol modified calcium carbonate. The dispersions were characterised using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and rheological measurements. It was observed that filler nanoparticles were dispersed within the PUU matrix and laid onto the PUU particles. At filler levels of less than 15 percent, the dispersions showed pseudoplastic behaviour. Films prepared from the dispersions were evaluated for their tensile properties and water contact angle, and showed improved water resistance and mechanical properties. 18 refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF KONJAC GLUCOMANNAN/TITANIUM DIOXIDE NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.401-404
Author(s): Dating Tian; Haiho Mao; Weibing Hu; Hong-Quan Xie
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 16
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Composites of a polysaccharide (konjac glucomannan) (KGM) and titanium dioxide were prepared by blending the filler with an aqueous solution of the KGM and casting the resulting materials onto a glass slide. Films were characterised using transmission electron microscopy, thermogravimetric analysis, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and tensile measurements. Thermal stability and mechanical properties of composites were better than films of pure KGM, and spectral analysis revealed changes in the KGM molecular structure on filler addition. 25 refs.

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