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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: STRUCTURE AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF CO-POLYAMIDE (CPA)/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES BY A MELTING EXTRUSION METHOD
Page Range: p.411-416
Author(s): Shuaijiang Zhao; Xilin She; Hailing Li; Fang Yuan; Di Zhou
File size: 261K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 18
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
The aim of the work was to study the structure and thermal property of co-polyamide (CPA)/clay nanocomposites. Two nanocomposites, based on two co-polyamides (CPA) and organic-clay, were successfully prepared by melting extrusions in a twin-screw extruder with high aspect ratio back-whorl. Their morphology and thermal properties were characterized by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), different scanning calorimeter (DSC). TEM results showed that the layered silicate sheets with the thickness of about 15 nm dispersed homogeneously in the polymeric matrix and formed exfoliated layered silicate nanocomposites. DSC results revealed that the crystallisation rate increased due to the addition of 2.0 wt.% clay into CPA. 32 Refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF DIFFERENT CURING SYSTEMS ON THE PHYSICO-MECHANICAL AND RHEOLOGICAL PROPERTIES OF CSM RUBBER
Page Range: p.417-428
Author(s): Madhuri Nanda; Deba Kumar Tripathy
File size: 421K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 18
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Curing systems play a vital role in designing rubber compounds for various industrial applications. Keeping this in view, a comparative study of the effects of four different curing systems such as sulphur, dicumyl peroxide (DCP), metal oxide (PbO) and epoxy resin on the curing characteristics, physico-mechanical, and rheological properties of chlorosulphonated polyethylene rubber (CSM) has been carried out. The highest values of maximum rheometric torque and scorch safety were observed in the peroxide-cured system, whereas sulphur-cured CSM rubber compounds possessed superior mechanical and rheological properties compared to those of the other cured systems. It is interesting to note that all curing systems exhibited increases in tensile strength, hardness, tear strength and crosslink density after ageing. This may be due to post vulcanisation. Unlike uncured CSM compound, in cured CSM compound the loss tangent increased with frequency, which may be due to the insufficient time available for molecular relaxation. Probable crosslinked structures for different curing systems have been proposed based on the observations of attenuated total reflectance Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. 27 Refs.

Title: AN AROMATIC MACROMOLECULE AS A NANO DRUG CARRIER: POLYETHER DENDRIMER / POLY(2-HYDROXYETHYL METHACRYLATE)
Page Range: p.429-434
Author(s): Reza Saboktakin M; Tabatabaie R M; Maharramov A; Ramazanov M A
File size: 295K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 18
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Highly branched, functionalised polymers have the potential to act as efficient drug carrier systems. The aromatic polyether dendrimers are spherical, highly ordered, multibranched, nanometre-sized macromolecules having positively charged ether groups on the surface under physiological conditions. In this study, we have synthesised a kind of dendrimer/poly(2-hydroxy ethyl methacrylate) nanocomposite/5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) for oral drug delivery. The aromatic polyether dendrimer (generation 2, hyperbranched polyether with -CH2OH functionality, 3,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid core) was prepared from generation 2, hyperbranched polyether dendrimer with -COOCH3 form in excellent yield. FT-IR, 1H-NMR and DSC studies suggest that the monomer predominantly forms a complex with polyether dendrimers because of the interaction between the -CH2OH end groups of dendrimer and the -OH group of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate monomer. 15 Refs.

Title: STUDIES ON VARTM FORMING Z-STITCHED FOAM CORE SANDWICH COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.435-442
Author(s): Shaokai Wang; Min Li; Yizhuo Gu; Zuoguang Zhang
File size: 544K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 18
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Z-stitched foam core sandwich composite is a newly developed structure with through-thickness load-bearing pillars embedded by a stitching technique. In this paper, large-tow glass fibre stitches and fire-resistant phenolic resin were creatively used to fabricate this kind of sandwich composite, which possessed outstanding properties including fire resistance, debonding resistance and high flatwise compressive strength. Vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) was conducted for processing. The effects of process conditions on key structural parameters of the z-stitched foam core sandwich composite were investigated, including the dimensions of the pillar, the fibre volume fraction of the facesheet as well as the porosity of the pillar. The results show that macroscopic void defects tend to be formed at the joints between the pillars and the top facesheet if air is trapped in the system. The cross sectional areas of the pillars are all larger than the suture needles due to damage of foam cells in the vicinity during stitching process, which is caused by the brittleness of the phenolic resin. Moreover, the dimensions of the pillar could be affected by the vacuum pressure and the pressure gradient, even resulting in local resin-rich area around pillar. In order to optimize the manufacturing quality of this sandwich composite, a small linear density of stitches and a long enough action time of the vacuum process are both very helpful. 11 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION OF HEAT-RESISTANT EPOXY/SILICA HYBRIDS THROUGH A NOVEL SOL-GEL PROCESS
Page Range: p.443-450
Author(s): Xue Xia; Guoqing Wang; Peng Yang; Hiroyuki Kagawa; Haitao Wang; Masahiro Suzuki; Wei Zhong; Qiangguo Du
File size: 498K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 18
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
A series of hybrid materials based on the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol-A (DGEBA) and 3-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysilane (GPTMS) were prepared via a modified sol-gel process. The curing process of hybrid materials was analyzed with an advanced rheometric expansion system (ARES) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were carried out to evaluate the thermal properties of the resulted epoxy hybrids. Copper clad laminates were also prepared by a traditional hot-press moulding procedure with the hybrid varnish, which showed an excellent heat-resistant performance This kind of hybrid material may be suitable for electronic applications due to their excellent high temperature reliability and stability. 22 Refs.

Title: EPOXIDIZED PALM OIL PLASTICIZED POLYLACTIC ACID/FATTY NITROGEN COMPOUND MODIFIED CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION
Page Range: p.451-460
Author(s): Jaffar Al-Mulla E A; Wan Md Zin Wan Yunus; Nor Azowa Bt Ibrahim; Zaki Ab Rahman M
File size: 516K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 18
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Fatty nitrogen compounds (FNCs); fatty amides (FAs), fatty hydroxamic acids (FHAs), and N,N'-carbonyl difatty amides (CDFAs), which were synthesised from palm oil, have been used as organic compounds to modify a natural clay (sodium montmorillonite). The clay modification was carried out by stirring the clay particles in an aqueous solution of FAs, FHAs, or CDFAs by which the clay layer distance increased from 1.23 to 2.69, 2.89 and 3.21 nm, respectively. The modified clay was then used in the preparation of the epoxidised palm oil (EPO) plasticised polylactic acid (PLA) nanocomposites. The interaction of the modifier in the clay layer was characterized by X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). Elemental analysis was used to estimate the presence of these FNCs in the clay. The nanocomposites were synthesised by solution casting of the modified clay and a PLA/EPO blend at the weight ratio of 80/20, which has the highest elongation at break. The nanocomposites were then characterized using XRD, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and tensile properties measurements. The XRD and TEM results confirmed the production of nanocomposites. PLA/EPO modified clay nanocomposites show higher thermal stability and significant improvement of mechanical properties in comparison with those of the PLA/EPO blend. 35 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF SOLVENT ON THE MORPHOLOGY OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLY(N-VINYL CARBAZOLE) WEB PREPARED BY ELECTROSPINNING
Page Range: p.461-468
Author(s): Hee Sam Kim; Ki Bum Kee; Young Jae Lee; Sung Soo Han; Yong Sik Chung; Han Yong Jeon; Yong Rok Lee; Yeong Soon Gal; Seok Kyun Noh; Won Seok Lyoo
File size: 472K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 18
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
The effects of solvents such as 1,1,2,2-tetrachloroethane (TCE) and tetrahydrofuran (THF) and other processing parameters of electrospinning on the spinnability of high molecular weight poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVCz) solution and morphological variations of the as-spun PVCz web were investigated. That is, electrospun PVCz webs with various dimensions and shapes were obtained by controlling the type and amount of solvent and processing parameters like applied voltage, tip to the collector distance, and solution concentration. In the cases of all parameters, the average diameter of fibres in PVCz web electrospun in TCE was finer than that in THF. In addition, minimum diameters of fibres were about 900 nm and 3 micrometre for TCE and THF, respectively. In THF, PVCz fibres at high initial polymer concentration were not cylindrical but planar, which were similar with "ribbon" and nano-sized pores, resulting from the differences in evaporation rates and in the viscosities of the solvent and the solutions. 24 Refs.

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