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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: ENHANCED CONTINUOUS GLASS FIBRE-REINFORCED POLY(PHTHALAZINONE ETHER SULFONE KETONE) COMPOSITES BY BLENDING POLYETHERIMIDE AND POLYETHERSULFONE
Page Range: p.445-450
Author(s): Liang Zheng; Xigao Jian
File size: 324K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Poly(phthalazinone ether sulphone ketone) (PPESK) is a novel high performance thermoplastic with outstanding high temperature resistance and excellent mechanical properties and therefore, it is a very ideal candidate matrix for advanced composites. However, the high melt viscosity of PPESK makes it difficult to melt-process. In this paper, two well-known high performance thermoplastics, polyetherimide (PEI) and polyethersulphone (PES) were introduced into PPESK in order to reduce its melt viscosity and to improve the properties of its composites. The effect of the addition of PEI and PES on the resultant composites was studied. A series of unidirectional composites was made from PPESK and its PEI and PES blends as matrices and continuous glass fibre as reinforcement. The solution prepregging method and hot-press moulding method were used in the preparation of composites. The effects of the polymer blend matrices on the mechanical properties, interfacial adhesion and fracture mode were studied by three point bending, interlaminar shearing, porosity measurements and SEM microscopy. The results showed that the mechanical properties and interfacial adhesion increased and the porosity decreased after blending PEI or PES in the matrix. Addition of PEI and PES to PPESK also resulted in an obvious transition of fracture mode. 22 Refs.

Title: FLOW INSTABILITY OF POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL)/DIMETHYL SULFOXIDE SOLUTION UNDER STEADY SHEAR
Page Range: p.451-458
Author(s): Sung Yeol Do; Chang Yeol Ryu; Yong Rok Lee; Jae Jin Shim; Seok Kyun Noh; Joon Ho Kim; Sang Woo Joo; Yeong Soon Gal; Sung Soo Han; Won Seok Lyoo
File size: 345K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
The effects of solution temperature and molecular weight on the rheological responses of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) semidilute solutions (13 g/dL - 19 g/dL) in dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO) have been studied using PVA with two different number-average degrees of polymerisation (Pn): 1700 and 4000. For the rheological experiments using dynamic shear, the PVA solution with a Pn of 1700 showed rather simple Newtonian fluid behaviour, whereas that with Pn of 4000 exhibited non-Newtonian shear thinning behaviour. Steady shear rheology experiments suggested that the lower Pn PVA solutions were Newtonian fluids, which is consistent with the dynamic shear rheology results. However, an abrupt decrease of shear viscosity at high shear rates was observed for the higher Pn PVA solutions at lower temperatures, such as 30 C and 50 C. At higher temperatures of 70 C and 90 C, the higher molecular weight PVA solutions exhibited simple shear thinning behaviour without any further complications of flow instability. The fact that temperature plays a critical role in controlling the observed flow instability of the PVA solutions in DMSO strongly suggests that there exist enhanced inter-chain interactions by hydrogen bonding of PVA chains beyond the chain entanglements, particularly for the higher Pn PVA semidilute solutions at low temperatures. Therefore, it is important to consider both chain entanglements and hydrogen bonding interactions in order to process PVA solutions without causing undesirable flow instability. 20 Refs.

Title: HYBRID FIBRE REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES FOR PULTRUSION: MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
Page Range: p.459-468
Author(s): Chin-Hsing Chen; Ping-Hung Chen
File size: 406K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Hybrid glass/carbon fibre reinforced epoxy (GF/CF/Epoxy) composites have been manufactured by pultrusion processes, in order to obtain the best mechanical properties, thermal properties and optimum price of hybrid GF/CF/Epoxy composites for pultrusion. The static mechanical properties including flexural strength, flexural modulus, notched Izod impact strength and swelling ratio, the dynamic mechanical properties including dynamic storage modulus, E' and tan (delta)(Tg), and the thermal properties including of weight loss by TGA of pultruded hybrid GF/CF/Epoxy composites were investigated. The results showed that the flexural modulus increased with the increasing of carbon fibre content. The flexural strength, notched Izod impact strength and swelling ratio of pultruded composites decreased with increasing carbon fibre content. The E' of pultruded composites increased with the carbon fibre content, postcuring temperature and postcuring time. The peak of tan (delta) for pultruded composites was shifted to a higher temperature when the carbon fibre content, postcuring temperature, and postcuring time were increased. From TGA, the weight loss of pultruded composites decreased with the carbon fibre content, postcuring temperature, and postcuring time in an inert (N2 gas) atmosphere, and the char yield increased with the carbon fibre content, postcuring temperature, and postcuring time. From the SEM morphology, excellent wet-out of the hybrid fibre by the epoxy resin could be observed. 24 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/BOEHMITE NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.469-476
Author(s): Jianjun Zhang; Quan Ji; Ping Zhang; Qingshan Kong; Yanzhi Xia
File size: 469K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
The morphology, flame retardancy and non-isothermal crystallisation behaviour of pure PET and poly(ethylene terephthalate)/nano-boehmite composites (PET/AlOOH) prepared in situ were characterized using several techniques. The morphology of the nanocomposites carried out using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) showed that the nano-boehmite particles were uniformly dispersed in the polymer matrix and formed crosslinked structures. Combustion behaviour and flammability were assessed using cone calorimetry (CONE). The results indicated that the total heat release (THR) and smoke production rate of PET/AlOOH were significantly less than those of pure PET. Study of the behaviour and kinetics of non-isothermal crystallisation of pure PET and PET/AlOOH nanocomposites was accomplished by DSC analysis. The results showed that the AlOOH could act as an effective nucleation agent for the crystallisation of PET, while the presence of boehmite decreased the crystallisation rate and extended the time of crystallisation of PET, which can be explained by the formation of partly-crosslinked structure of PET/AlOOH nanocomposites. 18 Refs.

Title: EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF THE LONGITUDINAL COMPRESSIVE STRENGTH OF CARBON FIBRES WITH A DIRECT MEASUREMENT SYSTEM
Page Range: p.477-484
Author(s): Zhang Boming; Wu Yufen; Yang Zhong; Wang Xiaohong
File size: 422K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Characterisation of the mechanical properties of carbon fibres is crucial to the design of fibre reinforced composite materials. However, little has been done due to the complexity and inaccuracy of some of the necessary tests. In order to study the compressive properties of single fibres, a direct system for single carbon fibre compressive strength was set up based on previous studies; several kind of PAN-based carbon fibres were examined at specimen gauge lengths from 20 to 150 micrometre using this system. It was discovered that the experimental compressive strength was constant when the length of carbon was in the range of 20~90 micrometre; when the sample's length was beyond 90 micrometre, the compressive strength decreased sharply. The reason is that its deformation mode was not compressive but buckling. In order to compare with corresponding tensile behaviour, a tensile strength test was also carried out, and it was discovered that the compressive strength was about 50% of the tensile strength for single fibres. 20 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF N-(CARBOXY-METHYLTHIOUREIDO)-CHITOSAN AND ITS DISPERSION CAPABILITY
Page Range: p.485-490
Author(s): Liu J; Min Wu Y; Li Nie Z
File size: 287K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Water-soluble N-carboxymethylthioureidochitosan (CMTC) was synthesised by the reaction between chitosan (CTS) and ammonium thiocyanate and chloroacetic acid in a hydrochloric acid aqueous solution. The modified product was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectrometry, X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and thermal analysis. The results showed that new functional groups had been linked to amino groups of CTS molecules, and the product was more amorphous than CTS. The dispersion stability of CMTC was examined with a sedimentation test of 1 wt.% kaolin suspension in test tubes, under different concentrations and different pH. The results indicated that CMTC may be applicable for use as a novel stabiliser in neutral solution in which the concentration of CMTC is 0.5% or 1%. 25 Refs.

Title: COMBUSTION BEHAVIOUR AND SYNERGISTIC EFFECT OF ZINC BORATE AND MICROENCAPSULATED RED PHOSPHORUS WITH MAGNESIUM HYDROXIDE IN FLAME-RETARDED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.491-496
Author(s): Xiaolang Chen; Jie Yu; Jun Qin; Zhu Luo; Shuchun Hu; Min He
File size: 284K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
In this paper, the limiting oxygen index (LOI), Underwriters' Laboratories-94 (UL-94) test, cone calorimeter test (CCT), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) were used to study the flame-retardant properties of polypropylene (PP) composites and the synergistic flame-retardant effects of zinc borate (ZB) and/or microencapsulated red phosphorus (MRP) with modified magnesium hydroxide (MH) on PP. The experimental results showed that the addition of ZB and MRP had a great effect on the flammability of the PP composites. The data obtained from the CCT indicated that the heat release rate (HRR), the effective heat of combustion (EHC), and the mass loss of the flame-retarded PP composites decreased markedly with increasing addition of ZB and/or MRP. The data obtained from the TGA curves indicated that the thermal stabilities of PP/MH/ZB and PP/MH/ZB/MRP composites were better than those of PP/MH composites. 28 Refs.

Title: MODULATING CHROMIUM CONTAINING LEATHER WASTES INTO IMPROVED COMPOSITE SHEETS USING POLYDIMETHYLSILOXANE
Page Range: p.497-504
Author(s): Ashokkumar M; Thanikaivelan P; Chandrasekaran B
File size: 298K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Huge quantities of chrome-tanned leather wastes are produced every year from leather, footwear and clothing related industries. Many attempts have been made to reuse them in the form of boards, sheets, composites, etc. However, most of those methods have deficiencies such as low flexibility, cost effectiveness, non-eco-friendly, stringent process control and unacceptable properties. Our current work relies on an alternate method of reusing these wastes to form composite sheets with desirable characteristics. The waste chrome shavings were partially hydrolyzed and made into composite sheets using an eco-friendly polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) polymer. The sheets were characterized for their mechanical, thermal and morphological properties. The tensile and thermal properties of composite sheets increase gradually upon increase in PDMS concentration up to 20 wt.% followed by an abrupt decrease when the PDMS concentration increased further to 30 and 40 wt.%. The softness of sheets has an inverse relationship with tensile stress and directly proportional to the elongation values. Fourier transformed infrared (FTIR) analysis of composite sheets revealed the presence of dominant peaks corresponding to amide bands of collagen as well as characteristic bands of PDMS, showing the homogeneity of the developed composite sheets. Thus the developed composite sheets demonstrate potential for numerous applications in footwear, clothing and related industries. 50 Refs.

Title: STUDIES ON ANALYSIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PHENOLIC COMPOSITES FABRICATED FROM LIGNOCELLULOSIC FIBRES
Page Range: p.505-512
Author(s): Vijay Kumar Thakur; Amar Singh Singha; Inderjeet Kaur; Ramkumar Pudukotai Nagarajarao; Yang Liping
File size: 375K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
The use of lignocellulosic natural fibres has gained a growing interest during the last few years, principally due to many advantages these fibres can provide in terms of cost, renewability, biodegradability, aesthetic properties, environmental impact etc. Keeping in mind the immense advantages of natural fibres, the present communication is a study on the synthesis and characterisation of lignocellulosic Saccaharum cilliare fibre-reinforced polymer biocomposites through compression-moulding technique using phenol-formaldehyde (PF) resin as a novel polymer matrix. The effect of fibre loading on the mechanical, morphological and thermal properties of cellulose fibre reinforced biocomposites has been investigated. Mechanical properties such as tensile strength, flexural strength, compressive strength and wear resistance of fibre-reinforced polymer composites have been investigated as a function of fibre loading. Reinforcing of the polymer resin with lignocellulosic fibres was done in the particle (200 micron) form. The intact polymer biocomposites fabricated showed a common trend of enhancement in the mechanical properties with fibre loadings up to 30%, and beyond this loading the properties decreased. Fibre/ matrix interaction has been analyzed by mechanical and morphological (SEM) studies. Thermal (TGA/ DTA/ DTG) studies have also been carried out on the PF matrix, Saccaharum ciliare fibre and particle-reinforced (P-Rnf) biocomposites. 30 Refs.

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