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Title: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ELONGATED CHAIN-LIKE NANOSTRUCTURE POLYANILINE IN ICE CUBE
Page Range: p.625-630
Author(s): Roy A S; Anilkumar K R; Ambika Prasad M V N
File size: 272K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Highly crystalline polyaniline (PANI) with elongated chain-like nanostructures 20-35 nm in diameter and 6080 nm in length were prepared using sodium dodecylbenzenesulphonic acid (SDBSA) in ice medium without stirring. The synthesised polyanilines were characterized by SEM, FTIR, and UV-Visible spectroscopy and XRD measurements. The formation of polyaniline/SDBSA salts insoluble in reaction system without stirring is found to be favourable for the formation of this clustered chain-like nanostructure. The temperature dependent conductivity measurement shows a thermally activated exponential behaviour of the chain-like polyaniline nanostructure. The melting point of the nanostructured polyaniline was found to be 253 degrees C. 38 Refs.

Title: CORRELATION BETWEEN COMPRESSION-SET AND COMPRESSION STRESS-RELAXATION OF EPICHLOROHYDRIN ELASTOMERS
Page Range: p.631-638
Author(s): Wahab A; Farid A S
File size: 264K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Set behaviour has always been regarded as an efficient and experimentally facile way of assessing sealing performance. However, many argue that stress-relaxation, which is a little more complicated to assess compared to set, should be the principal property by which sealing behaviour should be ranked. Given the experimental ease with which set can be determined, it is therefore desirable to develop a relationship combining stress-relaxation with the simplicity of compression-set so as to circumvent the need for determining the experimentally arduous property of compression stress-relaxation. Such a relationship will clearly couple experimental convenience with a reliable parameter for assessing sealing behaviour. Thus, the object of the present paper is to investigate the extent to which compression-set results can be used to indicate stress-relaxation behaviour. In this endeavour a mathematical model proposed by Ellul and Southern1 is employed. The overall conclusion is similar to that of other workers who have carried out work of this nature, but notably, it was found that the model was sufficient for ranking purposes. 14 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF INTERFACIAL MODIFIERS ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND FLAMMABILITY PROPERTIES OF PE/WOOD COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.639-646
Author(s): Hong Haoqun; Liu Tao; He Hui; Jia Demin; Zhang Haiyan
File size: 363K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
The ternary-monomer graft copolymers of polyethylene (GPE) were used as interfacial modifiers for recycled polyethylene (rPE)/wood flour (WF) composites. How the interfacial modifiers and WF processing methods affected the mechanical properties, thermal stability and flammability properties of the composites were investigated. Results show that the steam-braising on WF could increase the mechanical properties of the composites. The interfacial modifiers were excellent compatibilisers for the rPE/WF composites that significantly increased the mechanical properties of the composites. Wood flour acted as charring agent during the combustion of the composites to improve the flame retardancy of PE/wood flour composites. Due to the improved interface compatibility between rPE and WF by GPE, the rPE/WF composites maintained excellent mechanical properties and flame retardancy even at higher filler content. 25 Refs.

Title: INVESTIGATIONS ON THE EVOLUTION OF AKRON ABRASION PROCESS OF SBR VULCANIZATES
Page Range: p.647-654
Author(s): Sun J T; Hu B; Zhang P; Zhao S G
File size: 406K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
The Akron abrasion processes of two different kinds of SBR (1502 and T2000R) were studies in detail in this paper. The whole Akron abrasion process (1.61 km) was divided equally into six stages, and the abrasion loss at every stage was measured. The crosslink density and abrasion pattern of every abrasion stage were investigated respectively by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Crosslink-density Spectrometry (NMR-CDS) and optical microscopy. The effects of hot-air ageing and carbon black fraction on the abrasion processes and abrasion resistance are also discussed. For both unfilled SBR1502 and SBRT2000R, it was found that the trend in the plot of abrasion loss against stage number was similar to each other. Their abrasion loss at different stages was different, and it had a maximum value at the third stage. The crosslink density decreased as the number of revolutions increased, while it increased sharply at 6000 revolutions due to the abraded surface being torn off. The microscopic studies showed that the abrasion began at 100 revolutions, and the coarse Schallamach abrasion pattern formed at 1000 revolutions. The ridges here were more or less across the circumference of the specimen. For filled vulcanisates, the abrasion resistance improved as the fraction of carbon black increased. The trend in abrasion loss plot was similar to that of the unfilled samples when the content of carbon black was lower than 30 phr. However, only a slight variation was observed in the abrasion loss at different stages when the content of carbon black was greater than 30 phr. 16 Refs.

Title: MG(OH)2/POLYSTYRENE HYBRID NANOCOMPOSITE PARTICLES PREPARED BY EMULSION POLYMERIZATION
Page Range: p.655-660
Author(s): Kwon Taek Lim; Sung Yeol Park; Yeon Tae Jeong; Yeong Soon Gal; Chan Park; Hyun Gyu Kim
File size: 325K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Core-shell type Mg(OH)2/polystyrene nanocomposite particles were prepared by the emulsion polymerisation of styrene in the presence of surface-functionalized Mg(OH)2 particles. Platelet-like, 80 nm Mg(OH)2 particles were previously functionalised with 3-(trimethoxysilyl)propyl methacrylate and used for the polymerisation to produce stable hybrid composite latexes. Polyencapsulation of the Mg(OH)2 particles in polystyrene matrix took place when the reaction was conducted with 10 to 30% w/w of Mg(OH)2 with respect to the monomer. With 40% loading of Mg(OH)2, an unstable latex having aggregated particles was produced. Transmission electron microscopic images revealed the hybrid composites to be multi-core/shell type encapsulated particles, while thermogravimetric analysis showed that a difference in the decomposition onset temperature of polystyrene was not apparent in the range of 0 to 40% content of nano-Mg(OH)2. 24 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF SURFACE MODIFICATION OF MWCNTS ON CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOUR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF LDPE/POE/MWCNTS COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.661-668
Author(s): Zhiqiang Chen; Shuangjun Chen; Jun Zhang
File size: 340K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) modified by concentrated sulphuric acid/nitric acid (H2SO4/HNO3) and silane coupling agent (a-aminopropyltriethoxy silane, KH550) was studied by Fourier transform infrared spectrometry (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The effect of modified MWCNTs on crystallisation behaviour and mechanical properties of low density polyethylene (LDPE)/polyolefin elastomer (POE)/MWCNTs composites were investigated. The results revealed that the crystallinity of composites increased with the addition of the raw MWCNTs and MWCNTs which were modified by H2SO4/HNO3 and KH550. The MWCNTs treated by H2SO4/HNO3 had a better dispersion in matrix than raw MWCNTs and it was beneficial to tensile strength. Further modification by KH550 on H2SO4/HNO3 treated MWCNTs could improve the dispersion of MWCNTs in matrix and interfacial adhesion between MWCNTs and matrix, leading to the tensile strength increased by 35.5 % compared to LDPE/POE composite with raw MWCNTs, and modulus at 100% of composites also increased. 23 Refs.

Title: MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE BLENDS CONTAINING PHENOLIC RESIN PRODUCED FROM THE LIQUEFACTION OF EMPTY FRUIT BUNCH FIBRES
Page Range: p.669-676
Author(s): Lee-Lee Chai; Chin-Hua Chia; Sarani Zakaria; Sharifah Nabihah; Rozaidi Rasid
File size: 396K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Phenol formaldehyde (PF) resin prepared from phenol-liquefied empty fruit bunch (EFB) fibres was blended with polypropylene (PP) using a co-rotating twin-screw extruder. The effects of the PF content (10, 20, 30 and 40 wt.%) blended with PP on the properties of the PP/PF board were investigated. SEM images depicted the formation of spherical protuberances and voids in the PP/PF board with the increasing PF content. The size of the protuberances was also increased with the PF content. The formation of void could be due to the release of water, ammonia and formaldehyde during the blending and hot-press processes. The density, moisture content and maximum water absorption of the PP/PF board increased with the increase of PF content. The TG curves of the PP/PF boards revealed that the PF and PP in the PP/PF board decomposed at different temperature ranges, i.e., 200-420 and 425-480 degrees C, respectively. The addition of PF to PP reduced the activation energy of the first stage thermal decomposition of the PP/PF boards. The addition of 10 wt.% PF was the optimum content to produce PP/PF board with optimum mechanical properties. 27 Refs.

Title: DOUGH-MOULDING COMPOUND REINFORCED METHYL VINYL SILICONE RUBBER WITH SILICA FILLER
Page Range: p.677-680
Author(s): Wei-li Wu
File size: 284K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Methyl vinyl silicon rubber (MVQ) composites were reinforced by a dough-moulding compound (DMC), in which silica was used as filler by blending method. The influences of silica and DMC content, and cure conditions on the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites were investigated. The compatibility and crosslinking structure of the composites were examined by SEM and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis. The results showed that DMC/MVQ composites had very good mechanical and thermal properties when the formula of the compound was MVQ 100, DMC 70 and silica 35 phr, and the cure conditions were 170 degrees C for 30 min under 10 MPa. The compatibility between DMC and MVQ was good, and C-O-C bonds between unsaturated polyester (UP) and MVQ were revealed by FTIR analysis. The mechanical and thermal properties of DMC/MVQ were obviously improved. 11 Refs.

Title: KINETICS FOR GRAFTING OF ACRYLIC ACID ONTO CHLORINATED POLYPROPYLENE
Page Range: p.681-684
Author(s): Heqing Fu; Wangting Lai; Lina Wang; Caibin Yan
File size: 248K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Acrylic acid (AA) grafting onto chlorinated polypropylene (CPP) was carried out using toluene as solvent and benzoyl peroxide (BPO) as initiator by free radical polymerisation. The effects of reaction temperature, concentration of acrylic acid monomer and benzoyl peroxide initiator on the rate of graft polymerisation were studied. The rate of graft polymerisation depended on the initiator and monomer concentrations. The actual rate constant of graft polymerisation was found to obey the Arrhenius law and the activation energy E value was 40.6 kJ/mol. The kinetic equation for the grafting of acrylic acid onto chlorinated polypropylene was R = K [BPO] [AA]0.62. 16 Refs.

Title: THE THERMAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ULTRA-HIGH MOLECULAR POLYETHYLENE/MONTMORILLONITE CLAY (UHMWPE/MMT) NANOCOMPOSITES USING GEL AND PRESSURE-INDUCED FLOW PROCESS (PIF)
Page Range: p.685-696
Author(s): Babiker M E; Yu Muhuo
File size: 494K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
This paper examines hybrid organic-inorganic polymer nanocomposites incorporating organically modified montmorillonite (MMT) and ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE). UHMWPE/MMT hybrid nanocomposites were prepared using gel and pressure-induced flow (PIF) processing methods at a gel concentration of 8 wt.% UHMWPE with various organoclay contents (0, 5, 10, 15, and 20 pphr). The interlayer properties of the nanocomposites were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The thermal and mechanical interfacial properties of the nanocomposites were investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and the use of a universal test machine (UTM). XRD and TWM indicated that the nanocomposites were formed upon dispersion of MMT in the polymer matrix. From the DSC, TGA and DMA results, we found that the thermal stability of the UHMWPE nanocomposites increased as the MMT content increased. The nanocomposites showed higher tensile strengths than those of pure UHMWPE gel sheet. These findings indicate that the interfacial and mechanical properties were improved by the addition of MMT and PIF processing. 40 Refs.

Title: OPTIMIZATION OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF ABACA FIBRE-REINFORCED HIGH IMPACT POLYSTYRENE (HIPS) COMPOSITES USING BOX-BEHNKEN DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS
Page Range: p.697-710
Author(s): Agung E H; Sapuan S M; Hamdan M M; Zaman H M D K; Mustofa U
File size: 861K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
Mechanical properties of polymer composites are influenced by many factors such as the types of fibres, the types of polymer matrix, the additives used and the adhesion between fibres and polymer matrix. To improve the interfacial adhesion between HIPS matrix and abaca fibres, a study of the optimum use of a coupling agent (MAH) and impact modifier is presented in this paper. Abaca fibre reinforced high impact polystyrene (HIPS) composites were produced with different fibre loadings (30, 40 and 50 wt.%), different compositions of coupling agent, maleic anhydride (MAH) (1, 2 and 3 wt.%) and different compositions of impact-modifier (4, 5 and 6 wt.%). A response surface methodology using Box-Behnken design was used in the design of experiments and analysis of results. Statistical analysis of mechanical properties gave very satisfactory model accuracy, because the coefficient of determinance was 0.9817 for impact strength, 0.9789 for tensile strength, 0.9672 for tensile modulus, 0.9700 for flexural strength, and 0.9747 for flexural modulus. In this study, a loading of abaca fibre of 36.76 wt.%, maleic anhydride 3 wt.%, and impact modifier 4 wt.% led to optimum individual impact strength. On the other hand, optimum individual tensile strength and tensile modulus were achieved when the loading of abaca fibre was close to 40.76 wt.%, maleic anhydride 3 wt.% and impact modifier 6 wt.%, but the optimum individual flexural strength and flexural modulus were found when the loading abaca fibre was close to 40.03 wt.%, maleic anhydride 3 wt.% and impact modifier 4 wt.%. 24 Refs.

Title: DISPERSE DYEABILITY OF POLYPROPYLENE FIBRES VIA MICROWAVE AND ULTRASONIC ENERGY
Page Range: p.711-716
Author(s): Elif Atabek Yigit; Murat Teker
File size: 311K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 19
Issue No: No.8

Abstract
In this study, the dyeability of polypropylene fibres with a disperse dye via microwave and ultrasonic energy was examined. A dye bath having a liquor-to-goods ratio of 20:1, and including dyestuff 2% owf was prepared and dyeing experiments using microwave and ultrasonic energy were carried out. In the case of microwave dyeing, experiments have been carried out at different energy levels (L, M-L, M, M-H and H) and different time ranges (1 to 5 min) while in the case of ultrasonic energy different temperatures (20, 40, 60 and 80 degrees C) and different time range (1 min to 30 min) were used. Additionally, effect of carrier was also investigated. Dyed samples were examined by determining their K/S values. Diffusion coefficients in all methods were calculated using Shibusawa's approximation of Hill's equation. Washing fastnesses of dyed samples were also examined. This study showed that the dyeability of polypropylene fibres was increased by both microwave and ultrasonic energy. 25 Refs.

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