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Title: PREPARING AND STRUCTURE OF A POROUS NANO-HA/CS/PVA COMPOSITE BY FREEZE-DRYING
Page Range: p.1-4
Author(s): Feng Wang; Enyan Guo
File size: 308K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Novel tissue engineering scaffold material porous hydroxyapatite, with interconnected pores, allows tissue fluid circulation and provides nutrient for new bone. In the work, Nano-HA /CS/PVA composites were prepared through a co-precipitation method with (NH4)2HPO4, Ca(NO3)2.4H2O, chitosan(CS) and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as raw materials. Frozen with liquid nitrogen, and then the porous scaffolds were fabricated by freeze-drying. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) confirmed the presence of chemical bonds among HA, CS and PVA and were discussed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) analysis revealed that the composites have interconnected porous structures. 14 Refs.

Title: FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF CONTROLLED DRUG RELEASE BASED ON BIPHASIC MODEL OF HYDROGEL CARRIER
Page Range: p.5-8
Author(s): Yanyan Zhang; Yuxi Jia
File size: 471K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Over the past few decades, many efforts have been made in the research of controlled drug release systems, which is an effective way to solve the problem of poor curative effect. Due to their excellent biocompatibility, hydrogels have a wide application as promising drug carrier materials in pharmaceutical domain. In this paper, a new mathematical model was established based on the multiphasic theory of hydrogels, and a commercial finite element solver was adopted to implement the simulation of drug release from a swollen hydrogel. Simulated results show that the swelling of the hydrogel carrier begins from the edge to the centre, and the drug release is initially anomalous transport followed by Fickian diffusion when the swelling of the hydrogel approaches to a new equilibrium state. 11 Refs.

Title: FLUORESCENCE OF A NEW PHENANTHROLIN DERIVATIVE SENSITIVE TO DNA INDUCED BY SINGLE- AND TWO-PHOTON EXCITATION
Page Range: p.9-12
Author(s): Zhang Xian; Xie Rui-xing; Yao Jin-shui; Meng Xiang-long; Liu Ying-kai; Yu Xiao-qiang; Jiang Min-hua
File size: 339K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
A novel two-photon absorption (TPA) material with phenanthrolin as acceptor (BSIPB) has been firstly synthesised and studied as possible fluorescence probe for nucleic acids detection. The single-photon and two photon fluorescence properties of the dye in the unbound state and in DNA complexes were investigated. Some quantum yields and TPA cross sections at important points were calculated. The results showed that BSIPB can be used as an efficient fluorescent probes for DNA detection and imaging under both single-photon excitation (SPE) and two-photon excitation (TPE). 19 Refs.

Title: A NOVEL LIGHT-EMITTING CONJUGATED COPOLYMER BASED ON 1,4-DIETHOXYBENZENE AND 3-METHYLTHIOPHENE VIA ELECTROCHEMICAL POLYMERIZATION
Page Range: p.13-20
Author(s): Yujian Zhang; Chunhui Yu; Mi Ouyang; Nachuan Wang; Cheng Zhang
File size: 436K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
A novel light-emitting conjugated copolymer based on 1, 4-diethoxybenzene (DEB) and 3-methylthiophene (MTh) is polymerized electrochemically in acetonitrile containing tetrabutylammonium perchlorate by the direct oxidation of DEB/MTh mixtures. The structure, morphology and electrochemical properties of the obtained copolymer are investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, 1H NMR spectrometer, scanning electron microscopy and cyclic voltammetry. The results confirm the achievement of DEB/MTh copolymerisation. UVvis spectra show that the absorption peak of the copolymer red shifts gradually with the decrease of DEB/MTh monomer feed ratio and the applied potential. Moreover, photoluminescence spectra of the copolymer exhibit great change in emission colour from pale blue to pale green with the variety of ratio of two monomers. Therefore, monomer feed ratio and polymerisation potential play important roles in the optical properties of copolymers. 41 Refs.

Title: TUNING THE EMISSION COLOR OF CONJUGATED POLYMERS VIA OXIDATION COPOLYMERIZATION OF FLUORENE AND 3,4-ETHYLENEDIOXYTHIOPHENE
Page Range: p.21-26
Author(s): Mi Ouyang; Wen-qin Xiang; Yi Xu; Yu-jian Zhang; Qian-ping Lou; Cheng Zhang
File size: 279K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In this paper, 3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (EDOT)units are introduced to polyfluorene via chemical oxidation polymerisation. FTIR and 1H NMR spectra results confirm that the products are copolymers. Elemental analysis results show that the EDOT content in obtained copolymers increases as the feed ratio of EDOT/fluorene increases. UV-vis and PL spectra results show that the wavelengths of absorption peaks and emission peaks present obviously red-shift with the increase of EDOT content (Figure 2). In addition, the emission colours of resulting copolymers could be tailored between blue and green via changing the feed ratio of 9,9'-dibutylfluorene (DBF)/EDOT. 30 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND OPTOELECTRONIC PROPERTIES OF NOVEL FLUORENE-BASED COPOLYMER FOR RED LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES
Page Range: p.27-32
Author(s): Zhitian Liu; Shuangqiang Hu; Baolong Yang; Shuangquan Wu; Zixing Wang; Chi Zhang; Zhao Hu
File size: 277K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Novel copolymer derived from ethoxylated fluorene and 4,7-dithienyl-2,1,3-benzothiadiazole was successfully synthesised by palladium(0)-catalyzed Suziki coupling reactions. Optoelectronic properties of the copolymer were characterized by elemental analysis, NMR, UV absorption, photoluminescence (PL), and electroluminescence (EL). The films of the copolymer showed DBT-dominant red emissions. EL devices of the copolymer with a sandwich configuration of ITO/Polymer/Al displayed exclusive DBT emissions peaked at around 655 nm with the CIE coordinate of (0.67, 0.32). The polymer layer contained a conjugated copolymer that emits red light, trimethylolpropane trimethacrylate (TMPTMA), a low vapour pressure highly crosslinkable liquid, and lithium trifluoromethane sulphonate (LiTf) at a weight ratio of 20:40:1. A dynamic p-i-n junction was formed in thin films of light emitting polymers admixed with an ionically conductive medium. The PLEC device was turned on at relative low voltage 3.2 V and the brightness reached up to 1200 cd/m2 at 8 V. 24 Refs.

Title: AN AE INVESTIGATION ON BENDING FAILURE PROCESS OF CONCRETE FILLED CFRP-STEEL TUBE
Page Range: p.33-40
Author(s): Liwei Zhang; Yinghua Zhao; Jiang A; Yilie Hou
File size: 441K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
A four-point bending test is performed for concrete filled square steel tubular beams strengthened by CFRP in longitudinal and circumferential directions. The mechanical parameters and acoustic emission (AE) signals are acquired for investigating the failure process. Test results indicate that the failure process could be divided into four stages including elastic, elastic-plastic, descending and softening stages, and AE parameters and waveforms are found to characterize this process properly. In addition, damage sources of the specimen are localized and position concentration degree (PCD) of AE events is defined which can quantitatively reflect the distributing regularity of damage sources along the axial direction under different loading conditions. The research suggests that, acoustic emission sensing technique can be used as an effective tool for on-line monitoring of damage degree and failure process of concrete filled CFRP-steel tube under bending load. 13 Refs.

Title: MISCIBILITY INVESTIGATION OF POLYCARBONATE/POLY(ARYLETHER KETONE) CONTAINING 1,4-NAPHTHALENE BLENDS
Page Range: p.41-44
Author(s): Dong Jiang; Xiao-Ran Zhang; Yan-Mei Ma; Zhong-Dong Wang
File size: 356K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The blends of polycarbonate (PC) and Poly (aryl ether ketone) containing 1,4-Naphthalene (NA-PAEK) were prepared by melt mixing in a Brabender-like apparatus. The specimens for measurements were made by compression moulding under pressure and then were water-quenched at room temperature. The miscibility behaviour of PC with NA-PAEK was examined using differential scanning calorimeter (DSC), scanning electron microscope (SEM), and density. 8 Refs.

Title: VARIATION OF ELECTRO-CONDUCTIVE PROPERTY OF SSF /PA6 SYSTEM UNDER IMPACT LOADING USING A MODIFIED SHPB
Page Range: p.45-52
Author(s): Jin-tao Lei; Jian-kang Chen; Ming-hua Zhang
File size: 590K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In order to detect the variation of electro-conductive property of short steel fibre (SSF) filled polyamide-6 (PA6) under impact loading, a modified split Hopkinson pressure bar (M-SHPB) is suggested. Such M-SHPB is constructed by designing a new test electrocircuit, and connecting it to the specimen and oscillograph. On the other hand, a copper foil cover is designed and placed on the whole SHPB equipment for avoiding interference of electromagnetic wave existing in the testing environment. By means of M-SHPB, the relation between the resistance and dynamic stress or dynamic strain is effectively detected. The experimental results indicate that the resistance of the material decreases with the increase of strain or stress. The sensitive variation of the resistance appears at the beginning of the deformation of the material. 16 Refs.

Title: SWELLING BEHAVIOR STUDY OF PHYSICALLY CROSSLINKED GELATIN HYDROGELS
Page Range: p.53-58
Author(s): Congde Qiao; Xiaolu Cao; Fei Wang
File size: 217K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
A series of physically crosslinked gelatin networks were prepared and the effects of salt, pH, temperature and polymer concentration on the swelling properties of gelatin hydrogels were studied in detail. The swelling equilibrium of the gelatin networks can be described as a simple superposition of polyelectrolyte behaviour and polyampholyte behaviour. It was found that high temperature, low gelatin concentration and deviation from the isoelectric point can promote the swelling of the polymer networks. Moreover, the swelling kinetics of gelatin hydrogels at different salt concentration solutions was also investigated. It is found that the rate of swelling of gelatin could be described by a second-order rate equation, which indicated that the structure of the gelatin networks is homogenous. 18 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLY(VINYL ALCOHOL) BASED POLYAMPHOLYTE MEMBRANE
Page Range: p.59-62
Author(s): Lijuan Yu; Pingrui Meng; Shenghuan Liu; Xiaohui Wang; Yanmei Zhang; Haoqiang Yu
File size: 283K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-poly(sodium allylsulphonate/acrylamide) (PVA-g-PSAS/AM) were synthesised by free radical polymerisation. The PVA-g-PSAS/AM was degraded into poly(vinyl alcohol)-g-poly(sodium allylsulphonate/ vinylamine) (PVA-g-PSAS/VA), which was PVA based polyampholyte (PBPA). The PBPA homogeneous membrane was characterized by FT-IR and SEM. The isoelectric point of PBPA was pH=6. Surface hydrophilicity of membranes was examined by automated contact angle measurement device. At 90 degrees C, the PBPA membrane showed a separation factor of 991 and a flux of 1140 g/(m2(.)h) for 90 wt.% ethanol aqueous solution, while about 1491 and 970 g/(m2(.)h) for 90 wt.% isopropanol aqueous solution. 8 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION OF EPOXY SIZING AGENT FOR CARBON FIBER BY PHASE INVERSION EMULSIFICATION
Page Range: p.63-68
Author(s): Jianye Liu; Heyi Ge; Juan Chen; Huashi Liu
File size: 293K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The epoxy resin and epoxidised polybutadiene were used to prepare the emulsion type epoxy sizing agent for carbon fibre by phase inversion emulsification method. Effects of weight ratio of mixed emulsifiers and emulsifiers/resin (/e/r), shear rate and dripping speed of water on properties of emulsion were investigated by centrifugal sedimentation analysis, particle size analysis and zeta potential measurement. Results showed that the optimal emulsion was obtained when weight ratio of polyoxyethylene nonylphenol phosphoric ammonium (NP-10A) and polyoxyethylene styrenated phenol ether (602) was 2:1, (e/r was 12%, shear rate was 10000 r/min. Conductivity of emulsion by different Ce/r was also investigated to represent the variation of conductivity during emulsification process. 8 Refs.

Title: CRYSTALLIZABLE POLYISOPRENE UNDER STRAIN OBTAINED BY ND-BASED CATALYST
Page Range: p.69-72
Author(s): Guilian Li; Weidong Yin
File size: 265K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The conventional Ziegler-Natta catalyst composed of neodymium versatate (Nd(vers)3), alkylaluminium (Al(iBu)2H or Al(i-Bu)3) and diisobutylaluminium chloride (Al(i-Bu)2Cl) was examined in isoprene polymerisation. The polymer with narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn < 3) can be obtained by controlling Al(i-Bu)2H amounts and component addition order. While, polyisoprene with high cis-1,4 content (> 96%), high molecular weight (> 100x104) and narrow molecular weight distribution (Mw/Mn < 2.2) is synthesised by using Al(i-Bu)3 as cocatalyst. In the meantime, the obtained polymer has crystallisation behaviour under strain. 12 Refs.

Title: HIGH PERFORMANCE COMPOSITES OF POLYBENZOXAZINE AND POLYARYLENE ETHER NITRILES (PEN)
Page Range: p.73-76
Author(s): Wenjin Chen; YaJie Lei; Xiaobo Liu
File size: 226K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Polybenzoxazine (PBa) was modified by polyarylene ether nitriles (PEN) via in situ curing reaction of benzoxazine in the presence of PEN to improve toughness and thermal properties. DSC measurements of the cured blends containing PBa and PEN showed single glass-transition temperatures (Tg's) when the amount of PEN in the blends less than 20%, and the blends have significantly higher glass transition temperatures than those of each homopolymer. Tensile measurements of the films revealed that the strength and elongation was dramatically enhanced by the addition of PEN, the toughness of the PBa/PEN films was greatly enhanced. The thermal stability also increased with the increase of PEN content as evidenced by TGA. All of the mechanical and thermal characteristics show that the blends can be good candidates for the matrix resin of advanced composite materials. 14 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF SELF-HEALING MICROCAPSULES CONTAINING AN UV-CURABLE OLIGOMERS OF SILICONE
Page Range: p.77-82
Author(s): Rui-ying Xing; Qiu-yu Zhang; Jiu-li Sun
File size: 427K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In this work a new series of microcapsules for self-healing coatings were successfully prepared by an in-situ polymerisation route with poly (urea-formaldehyde) (PUF) as a shell material and a mixture of methacryloxypropyl terminated dimethyl silicone oil (2MA4000) and 1-hydroxycyclohexyl phenyl ketone (I-184) as core materials. The UV curing properties of the core materials were performed by the gel yield. The surface morphology and shell wall thickness, the particle size and distribution, and the chemical structure and properties of microcapsules were characterized by SEM, FTIR, laser particle size analyzer and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results indicated that the gel yield of 2MA4000 with 3 wt.% Irgacure-184 was 63.35%. The spherical microcapsules (particle size of mostly 20-50 (mu)m) were produced with a relatively thin shell wall of 20-90 nm, a filling content of 84 wt.%, and a high yield of 71.4 wt.%. The microcapsules exhibit a good heat resistance. The core of the microcapsule was under a good preservation state during the encapsulated process, and part of the core which was in the interface between oil and water participated in the reaction of urea and formaldehyde. It makes the microcapsule wall being the organosilicon modified PUF resins, which promotes the thermostability of the microcapsule wall and compatibility with organosilicon coating. 13 Refs.

Title: INVESTIGATION ON DYNAMIC MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CROSSLINKED POLY(STYRENE-CO-DIVINYLBENZENE) BULK COPOLYMERS: EFFECT OF DIVINYLBENZENE CONTENT
Page Range: p.83-88
Author(s): Quanyao Zhu; Qing Yang; Yue Yu; XiaoQing Wang; Fei Wu; Wen Chen
File size: 366K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The crosslinked poly(styrene-co-divinylbenzene) (CL-p(St-DVB)) bulk copolymers were fabricated by free radical bulk crosslinking copolymerisation (FCC) with styrene as monomer and divinylbenzene (DVB) as crosslinker. The viscoelastic properties of the crosslinked copolymers were investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) as a function of temperature and frequency. The Arrhenius relationship was employed to calculate the activation energy of the t-relaxation transition for the specimens. The results revealed that the storage modulus (Es) of the copolymer networks enhanced with the rising DVB content. The loss tangent (tans) peaks were lower and broader. The dynamic mechanical responses of the CL-p(St-DVB) networks were also strongly depended on the test frequency. 34 Refs.

Title: CORRELATION ANALYSIS OF HEAT TRANSFER, CURE AND MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF FIBER COMPOSITE LAMINATES
Page Range: p.89-94
Author(s): Xiaoxia Wang; Yuxi Jia; Chengguo Wang
File size: 462K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Curing deformation is a direct consequence of resin thermal curing induced composite internal stress. The understanding of the curing process is crucial to predict the internal stress, and then effectively control the curing deformation. For this purpose, the thermal-chemical-mechanical modelling of the multi-physical process is done, and a new simulation procedure is presented. Then a new correlation analysis of the heat transfer, cure and mechanical behaviour of fibre composite laminates is performed. It is shown that the temperature and curing degree distributions are inhomogeneous. The temperature of the geometrical structure centre is higher than that of the surface because of the exothermic reaction and the low thermal conductivity of the composite, so are the resin elastic modulus and the resin shrinkage strain. The research is helpful for understanding the complicated thermal-chemical-mechanical relationships, and then the design of composite curing processes according to certain requirements can be implemented. 8 Refs.

Title: A NEW HYDROPHOBIC ASSOCIATING POLYMER
Page Range: p.95-98
Author(s): Chuntian Liu; Xiaolin Wu; Xing Li; Xiaodan Yu; Xin Zhao
File size: 260K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The properties of a new hydrophobic associating polymer were evaluated in detail in this paper. The polymer enhances the effect of increasing viscosity for the assembling action of functional groups in molecular chain. Alkali and surfactant promote the association and result in the increasing of viscosity, so the concentration of polymer in ASP solution is less than that in solution without alkali and surfactant. The viscosity of polymer solution restored again when shear effect decreased or disappeared; the characteristic will make the polymer used in oilfield advantageously. The polymer has synergistic effect with surfactant, so the interfacial tension of oil and water was ultra-low in a wide range of chemical concentration; it is propitious to improve displacement efficiency. When the oil recovery is approximate, the amount of new hydrophobic associating polymer is 20% less than that of HPAM. 3 Refs.

Title: THERMALLY CURABLE POLY(SILYLACETYLENE)SILOXANE AS POLYMERIC PRECURSOR OF SIC CERAMIC
Page Range: p.99-102
Author(s): Chengda Yu; Mingcun Wang; Pi Li
File size: 216K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The pressureless pyrolysis of poly(silylacetylene)siloxane precursor to silicon carbide (SiC) was studied. Poly(silylacetylene)siloxane was synthesised via organometallic condensation. The precursor resin was well soluble in acetone, toluene and tetrahydrofuran (THF), etc. Thermal cure was conducted readily at 180-250 degrees C to form a hard brittle solid, and the cure mechanism was radical polymerisation of ethynyl groups. The ceramic yield of pyrolysis at 1500 degrees C was at about 67 wt.%. The molar ratio of Si/C in the SiC was found at 1:1.1-1:3 based on elements analysis. The results of x-ray diffraction (XRD) revealed the typical i-SiC structure in the poly(silylacetylene)siloxane derived ceramics. 8 Refs.

Title: PROPERTIES OF A NOVEL SILOXANE-CONTAINING EPOXY RESIN
Page Range: p.103-106
Author(s): Wenbing Sun; Chaocan Zhang
File size: 257K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
To fabricate self-organized gradient material using bisphenol-A epoxy resin (E51) and siloxane, the properties of a novel synthesised siloxane-containing epoxy resin (SE) were investigated in advance. It is found that SE behaves like Newtonian fluid at low shear rates, while like non-Newtonian fluid at high shear rates. Similar to E51, SE is soluble in most solvents. Although curing process of two epoxy resins submits to first-order reaction kinetics, curing activity of SE is higher slightly. Contrary to the cured E51, the cured SE is hydrophobic and characterized by ductile fracture. It is also observed that the cured SE is more stable in thermal decomposition than the cured E51. 9 Refs.

Title: SIMULATION OF A FLEXIBLE POLYMER CONFINED BETWEEN TWO PARALLEL SURFACES
Page Range: p.107-110
Author(s): Hong Li; Chang-Ji Qian; Meng-Bo Luo
File size: 259K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The conformational properties of a lattice self-avoiding polymer chain confined between two parallel impenetrable surfaces are simulated using Monte Carlo method. The statistical conformation size of polymer can be scaled by polymer chain length N and distance D between two surfaces. Chain is nearly free at large scaled distance bb= D/ NNb with v = 0.58 the scaling exponent and b = 1.42 mean bond length. Then it is squeezed along normal direction to surface at intermediate t, and at last it spreads out along surface at small,. For attractive surfaces, the chain is adsorbed at low temperature. For small D, we find an abnormal temperature dependence of chain size due to chain adsorbed to both surfaces simultaneously. 17 Refs.

Title: SKY-WHITE TEMPERATURE/PH-SENSITIVE NANOCOMPOSITE MICROGELS WITH LOWER SIZE AND GOOD TEMPERATURE-SENSITIVITY
Page Range: p.111-116
Author(s): Qingsong Zhang; Xuewei Li; Li Chen
File size: 317K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Adopting inorganic nanoclay (lithium magnesium silicate hydrate, LMSH) as physical crosslinking agent, a kind of novel temperature/pH double-sensitive nanocomposite microgels based on N-isopropylacrylamide (NIPAM) and acrylic acid (AAc) were synthesised by using surfactant-free emulsion polymerisation method. As a comparison, the traditional poly(NIPAM-co-AAc) microgel using N,N'-methylene-bis-acrylamide(MBA) as chemical crosslinker was prepared by same method. The chemical structure, shape, particle size and phase transition behaviour of two kinds of microgels were confirmed by FTIR, XRD, SEM and DSC respectively. The results show that nanocomposite microgel was successful prepared under LMSH severing as physical crosslinker, and the prepared nanocomposite microgel dispersions present sky-blue state, different from oyster white of microgels crosslinked by MBA. The nanocomposite microgels crosslinked by LMSH present good spherical shape with hydrodynamic diameter less than 430 nm, which is much smaller than that of microgels crosslinked by MBA. In addition, the microgels crosslinked by LMSH show same good temperature-sensitivity. With increasing temperature from 20 to 50 degrees , turbidity value increases, but lower than that of poly(NIPAM-co-AAc) microgel. Although a 7 mol.% ratio of AAc/NIPAM was used, the volume phase transition temperature of microgels still keeps at about 31 degrees because of crosslinking structure of LMSH platelets. 19 Refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF WEAR AND THERMAL DEFORMATION ON MACHINED PEEK PLASTIC BUSH AND TI CRANK SHAFT
Page Range: p.117-122
Author(s): Hitonobu Koike; Katsuyuki Kida; Kenji Kanemasu; Edson Costa Santos; Justyna Rozwadowska; Megumi Uryu; Kenichi Saruwatari; Takashi Honda
File size: 567K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In biped walking humanoid robot, toughness, durability and lightweight of joint parts are crucial factors due to parts' constant exposure to high torque and loads. Such ergonomically challenging conditions create the need for joint systems comprising independent elements capable of keeping the component operable for long periods of time. In our work, we focused on wear and thermal deformation in two different grades of both poly-etheretherketone (PEEK) and polyoxymethylene (POM) plastic bushes. The components used for investigation were bushes typically employed in speed reduction devices in joint models for biped walking humanoid robots. In such joint systems, plastic bushes are directly connected to a crankshaft, playing an important role in the robot's movement ability. In order to acquire the knowledge of how to build more efficient systems, the influence of the titanium crankshaft roughness on the frictional heat occurring between the shaft and the polymer bush as well as the input axis-output axis backlash require close examination. Based on Rolling Contact Fatigue test, we established the optimal machining conditions for the crank shafts and bushes. Also, superior to other tested polymers as far as glass transition temperature, wear toughness and thermal deformation are concerned, PEEK was found to be the best suiting material for our investigation. 19 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF NANO-CACO3 ON PROPERTIES OF PP/TLCP/CACO3 IN-SITU HYBRID MATERIALS
Page Range: p.123-128
Author(s): Cai Jiangtao; Zhou Anning; Zhou Wenying
File size: 359K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In this thesis, to reinforce and soften PP plastics, thermotropic liquid crystalline polymer (TLCP) and nano-CaCO3 were used. The PP/TLCP/CaCO3 in-situ hybrid materials were prepared in a twin-screw extruder respectively by one-step and two-step method. The effect of nano-CaCO3 adding method on PP/TLCP/CaCO3 in-situ hybrid materials was investigated. Polarisation optical microscope (POM) and differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) measurements showed that: nano-CaCO3 play an important role in PP/TLCP system heterogeneous nucleation, and CaCO3 particles can increase the crystal growth rate of PP matrix more than the contribution of the improvement of crystallinity. Field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM) observation revealed that the nano-CaCO3 enriched in the PP matrix though one-step method, which helped to promote the TLCP forming fibrils, therefore the tensile strength of one-step preparation sample was higher relatively. Mechanical measurements revealed that under the condition of the same proportion of PP/TLCP/CaCO3/PP-g-MAH=85/5/4/6, the mechanical properties of the hybrid materials prepared by one-step method were better than which of twostep method, the tensile strength of the one-step sample was 36.62 MPa, increased 2.95% more than which of two-step sample, the elongation at break of one-step method sample was 35.12%, increased 76.4%: the impact strength was 3.86 kJ/m2, and increased 4.9%. 27 Refs.

Title: THE INFLUENCE OF THERMAL FATIGUE ON THE PROPERTIES OF GLASS FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.129-132
Author(s): Dongzhi Wang; Xinrui Zhou; Heyi Ge; Zhiyong Liu; Huashi Liu; Kangning Sun
File size: 299K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In this paper, glass fibre reinforced epoxy composites were prepared according to laminated plates design principles by using glass fibre/epoxy composite prepreg. The mechanical property of glass fibre/epoxy composite and water absorption have been investigated before and after thermal cycles. Thermal cycles were performed in the temperature range between -40 degrees -80 degrees. Through different thermal cycles (0, 60, 120, 180 cycles), it was found that the mechanical property of different ply of glass fibre/epoxy matrix composites was decreased and water absorption of composites were increased. Moreover, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to characterize the fracture morphologies of glass fibre/epoxy composites before and after thermal cycles. SEM images showed that after 180 thermal cycles, the bonding effect of glass fibre and epoxy matrix interfacial layer became worse and pores increased, leading to the decrease in the mechanical properties and the increase in the water absorption. 8 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION OF STYRENE AND BUTYL ACRYLATE EMULSION WITH HIGH SOLID CONTENT IN THE PRESENCE OF A POLYMERIZABLE EMULSIFIER
Page Range: p.133-138
Author(s): Ying Feng; ChunHua Zhou; Wei Liu; RenXing Xiao
File size: 286K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
An emulsifier-free emulsion was synthesised via the pre-emulsified emulsion polymerisation, with styrene (St), butyl acrylate(BA), and ammonium allyloxtmethylate nonylphenol ethoxylates sulphate (DNS-86) as the polymerisable emulsifier. The influences of the reaction temperature and time, DNS-86 amount on the emulsion polymerisation were investigated, then the most suitable polymerizing conditions were obtained, the semi-continuous method was used, T=80 degrees , t = 5 h, the dosage of DNS-86 was 2% of total monomers mass. The analysis of the profiles of IR, NMR, and Laser particle size demonstrated that the copolymerisation occurred between St, BA and DNS86 to generate P(St-BA-DNS-86) successfully, and hydrophilic sulphonic groups containing the copolymer were conducive to emulsion stability. Besides, the influences of the dosages of DNS-86 on the latex solid content and average particle size were discussed. The result showed that with the increase of DNS-86 amount, the latex solid content increased and average particle size of latex reduced, e.g., at the 2% mass amount of DNS-86 52.50% of the latex solid content, 78 nm of average diameter, 0.0379 of particle size distribution. Latex of high solids of up to 62.1% has been obtained with 5% DNS-86. The results of TEM showed that the copolymer emulsion with smaller particle size and uniform distribution could be obtained by using polymerisable emulsifier DNS-86. 13 Refs.

Title: ELECTRICAL AND DAMPING COMPOSITE FILMS OF MWCNTS/P (STYRENE-BUTYLACRYL) PREPARED VIA IN SITU COPOLYMERIZATION
Page Range: p.139-144
Author(s): ChunHua Zhou; Wei Liu; Lili Wu; Ying Feng; Min Xu
File size: 320K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs)/P(styrene-butyl acryl) composite latex was successfully synthesised by in-situ emulsion copolymerisation to prepare MWCNTs/P(styrene-butyl acryl) composite film directly. The results by Raman spectra and FESEM showed that P(styrene-butyl acryl) copolymer molecules were combined assuredly with the surface of MWCNTs. MWCNTs coated with P(styrene-butyl acryl) could be dispersed in the emulsion evenly. Dynamic mechanical analysis showed that Tg, G' and tan of the composites films were greater in the presence of MWCNTs. Specially the vibration damping property was enhanced at elevated temperatures, indicating the strong interaction between MWCNTs and P(styrene-butyl acryl) molecules to limit the motivation of P(styrene-butyl acryl) chains. The electrical conductivity increased with the adding of MWCNTs by 7 orders of magnitude on addition of 1.5 wt.% MWNTs. So the electrical and damping film has been prepared via in situ emulsion copolymerisation. 18 Refs.

Title: SIMULATION OF NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF THERMOPLASTICS DURING FIBER PLACEMENT PROCESS
Page Range: p.145-150
Author(s): Yuehua Li; Hongya Fu; Zhenyu Han
File size: 392K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Currently more and more thermoplastic composites are applied in aircraft structures. During automated fibre placement process, thermoplastic composites, which adopted 'in-situ consolidation' technology, can be formed and consolidated in several minutes. Therefore, using 'in-situ consolidation' technology instead of autoclave technology is more economically. However, some technical indicators of laminates using 'in site consolidation' technology are below the autoclave laminates. In order to eliminate the most significant barriers, the automated fibre placement process should be studied. The crystallisation rate of thermoplastic in the cooling stage of automated fibre placement is one of the most important factors. In order to obtain the special crystallisation, the cooling temperature and cooling time should be strict controlled. According to the coupling phenomena between the non-isothermal crystallisation kinetics and the heat transfer in thermoplastic during the cooling stage, a mathematical model has been established. By solving above model, the relationship among cooling temperature, cooling time and relative crystallisation rate has been obtained. Above simulated data can guide the cooling stage of automated fibre placement process. 16 Refs.

Title: A NEW TYPE OF FLAME RETARDED EPOXY RESIN BASED ON METAL PHOSPHINATES
Page Range: p.151-154
Author(s): Xueqing Liu; Jiyan Liu; Shan Sun; Jia Chen
File size: 328K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Exolit OP930 (abbreviate OP930) product based on aluminium (diethyl phosphinate) is a new class of flame retardants for the use in epoxy resin (EP). In this paper, the mechanical properties, the morphologies of fracture surfaces, thermal stability, glass transition temperature (Tg) and flame retardant of OP930-EP composites with different composition have been studied. The composites exhibit satisfying thermal properties and a high limiting oxygen index (LOI) value as well as good compatibility with the matrix. Compared to neat resin, the mechanical properties of composites are also on a very good level. 7 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF TRANSPARENT SEBS/TITANIA NANOCOMPOSITE FILMS VIA FUNCTIONALIZATION OF SEBS AND SOL-GEL PROCESS
Page Range: p.155-160
Author(s): Huanwang Guo; Xue Li
File size: 281K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Transparent nanocomposite films based on a thermoplastic elastomer, poly[styrene-b-(ethylene-co-butylene)-bstyrene] triblock copolymer (SEBS), and titania sol-gel precursors are fabricated. The SEBS grafted with maleic anhydride (SEBS-g-MAH) can enhance the dispersion of titania in the SEBS matrix. The SEBS-g-MAH/titania nanocomposite films are transparent and exhibit excellent mechanical properties, including increased modulus and tensile strength, with only a slight loss of stretchability. Moreover, the uniformly dispersed titania nanoparticles in the SEBS-g-MAH matrix can enhance thermal stability of the nanocomposites. 34 Refs.

Title: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON INTERLAMINAR FRACTURE TOUGHNESS OF MODIFIED EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.161-164
Author(s): Xiang Ru Wang; Xiao Qing Wu; Mei Ling Liu
File size: 274K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The epoxy resin was modified with silica nanoparticles and reinforced by carbon fibre by means of resin transfer moulding (RTM). The interlaminar fracture toughness of the laminated composites was tested and the fracture surface was observed by the microscope. The result shows that the critical energy release rate (GIC) increases by 45% and the fracture surface is tougher than the unmodified specimen. The interlaminar fracture toughness has been improved significantly. 11 Refs.

Title: COMPARATIVE ANALYSIS OF STRESS DISTRIBUTION OF BRAIDED COMPOSITES UNDER DIFFERENT LOAD CONDITIONS
Page Range: p.165-170
Author(s): Peng Qu; Yuxi Jia; Jiaqi Nie; Xiaojun Guan
File size: 394K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In this paper, a comparative analysis of microscopic stress distribution in braided composites under different load conditions has been performed using a numerical method. The complexity of the architecture in non-orthogonally braided composites leads to the difficulty in the study of microscopic stress field. A geometric model which is suitable for the description of the stress distribution has been established. The location and magnitude of stress peak under different loads were investigated and the stress concentrations were subsequently discussed. For in-plane load, the maximum stress appears at 'joint part' of main bearing tow; for out-plane load, at 'overlapped part'. These results are beneficial to detecting the damage initiation regions. The effect of braid angle on in-plane shear deformation is more intensive relative to the in-plane tension, whereas the influence is inconspicuous for the out-plane load. The comparative analysis is help for a thorough understanding of the mechanical properties of braided composites. 6 Refs.

Title: THERMAL CURING INDUCED DEFORMATION OF FIBER COMPOSITE LAMINATES
Page Range: p.171-176
Author(s): Xiaoxia Wang; Yuxi Jia; Chengguo Wang
File size: 439K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The curing of fibre-reinforced composite laminates is a complex thermal-chemical-mechanical coupling process, during which composite laminates experience shape change because of resin thermal curing induced composite stress. For composite structures with high shape precision demands, the internal stress should be reduced or even avoided. According to the coupling method of multi-physical fields, the curing process and the process-induced deformation of composite laminates were simulated systematically in this work. The influencing factors are classified into two categories: matrix-dominated and fibre-dominated. The former category consists of curing shrinkage and reaction heat. Reaction heat influences the curing deformation through affecting the temperature and curing degree fields; however curing shrinkage has a direct impact on the strain. The latter one consists of ply orientation and fibre volume fraction, which influence the curing deformation by affecting the mechanical properties of the composite laminates. This study is helpful for understanding the relationship among the thermal, chemical, and mechanical behaviours. 12 Refs.

Title: DEFORMATION MEASUREMENT OF COMPOSITE LAMINATE WITH IMPACT DAMAGE UNDER COMPRESSIVE LOADS
Page Range: p.177-182
Author(s): Jiangtao Ruan; Shibin Wang; Jingwei Tong; Min Shen; Aymerich F; Priolo P
File size: 559K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
The out-of-plane displacement fields for a cross-ply laminate [03/903]s with impact damage under axial compression are investigated using carrier electronic speckle pattern interferometry (carrier-ESPI) in this paper. The compression after impact (CAI) test is conducted on rectangular specimen 65mm TT87.5mm in size using an anti-buckling fixture. In order to apply a uniform load to the top of composite laminate, a self-designed device insures that an accurate loading is given. The experimental results reveal the deformation characteristics of laminate under CAI test. 10 Refs.

Title: A RAPID DESIGN AND DESIGN KNOWLEDGE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM FOR MOULD OF AUTOCLAVE FORMING RESIN MATRIX COMPOSITE COMPONENTS
Page Range: p.183-190
Author(s): Feng-yang Bi; Tian-guo Jin; Gao-liang Peng; Wen-jian Liu
File size: 613K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Autoclave forming is an important method for manufacturing matrix composite components with large dimension and high quality. Digitisation of its manufacturing process is an active research field. The quality of manufacturing process information representation has great impact on the reuse of knowledge. Therefore, based on the analysis of devices, processing parameters and mould structure requirement in autoclave forming, an ontology-based representation for matrix composite components manufacturing process is presented. It can digitally describe and store device capability parameters, process parameters, and mould structure parameters. Thus a knowledge framework for mould design of autoclave forming is presented, and on that basis a rapid design prototype system for mould is developed, in it a mould design process wizard is built to integrate the mould design process, it include input information, calculation, analysis, data storage, display the result of mould design. The outcome of this system can be used for knowledge for autoclave forming mould design storage and reuse. 8 Refs.

Title: STUDY ON MORPHOLOGY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PVC WITH ULTRAFINE CACO3 SURFACE-MODIFIED BY ACRYLATE MACROMOLECULAR MODIFIERS
Page Range: p.191-196
Author(s): Ousheng Zhang; Chaocan Zhang; Lili Wu; Wenbing Sun; Liang Hu
File size: 342K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
In this paper, ultrafine CaCO3 particles were modified by four acrylate macromolecular modifiers, AC730, AC532, AC235 and AC037 with glass transition temperature from low to high, and subsequently added into PVC to investigate their influence on morphology and mechanical properties of the composites. Dispersity tests in organic solvents with different polarities show that modified CaCO3 particles can be well-dispersed in ethyl acetate and dichloromethane whose polarities are close to that of PVC, indicating good compatibility between modified CaCO3 particles and PVC. AC235 and AC037 with more content of 'rigid' MMA units have better dispersing effect on CaCO3 particles than AC730 and AC532 with more content of 'soft' BA units as revealed by SEM images of modified CaCO3 particles and PVC composites. Moreover, the results of tensile tests show that modified CaCO3 particles have obvious reinforcing and toughening effect on PVC, and the highest tensile strength and elongation at break were observed in the PVC sample modified by AC235. The results of tensile properties tests can be explained on the basis of the variations of interfacial cohesive strength and dispersing state of CaCO3 particles in PVC matrix. 14 Refs.

Title: COMPOSITE NANOPARTICLES ON THE NATURAL RUBBER LATEX GLOVE FOR REDUCTION OF SURFACE FRICTION AND CYTOTOXICITY
Page Range: p.197-200
Author(s): Kanjanathaworn N; Kaewsaneha C; Polpanich D; Jangpatarapongsa K; Tangboriboonrat P
File size: 275K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) particles were deposited via the Layer-by-Layer technique onto sulphur prevulcanised natural rubber latex film grafted with polyacrylamide (SPNR-g-PAAm). Besides an increase in surface hardness and roughness, hence, decrease of the surface friction of SPNR glove, a direct contact between skin and rubber film was reduced. Consequently, it was expected that the allergic problem to certain sensitive individuals and cytotoxic potential caused by the leachable non-rubbers (proteins) and lubricant powder sprinkled onto SPNR glove would be lowered. The SPNR and SPNR-g-PAAm coated with PMMA particles were extracted by using the culture medium and subjected to the in vitro cytotoxicity evaluation on L-929 fibroblasts. Results showed that the cytotoxicity was effectively reduced by coating PMMA particles onto the grafted rubber film. In order to improve both the binding ability with SPNR and antimicrobial activity, the PMMA-chitosan coreshell particles were prepared for further depositing onto the non-grafted SPNR film. Moreover, the nanocapsules containing an aqueous core of disinfectant agent (chlorhexidine digluconate) and poly(methyl acrylate) or sulphur prevulcanised skim rubber shell were prepared for being embedded in SPNR glove. 9 Refs.

Title: A NOVEL BEAM MODEL FOR MODE-II DELAMINATION ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES
Page Range: p.201-208
Author(s): Haitao Han; Zixing Lu; Jordan Zheng Zhang
File size: 556K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
A two dimensional beam model is proposed for delamination analysis of composite laminates, where Timoshenko's plane cross-section assumption is abandoned, and the longitudinal displacement of the beam is proposed as continuous functions of the transverse and the longitudinal coordinates, to match shear deformations. Moreover, the composite laminate is modelled as upper and lower sub-beam through the delamination interface, and corresponding conditions for interface sliding are satisfied through a generalized variational theory. The accuracy of the results of this analytical model is verified by comparison with those from three dimensional finite element models. Furthermore, the influences of delamination depth, length, central position and modulus mismatch ratio (E1/E2) of the upper and lower sublaminate to the energy release rate are discussed. 22 Refs.

Title: WEAR PROPERTIES OF CARBON/EPOXY RESIN COMPOSITES WITH AN INTERPENETRATING NETWORK STRUCTURE DERIVED FROM ARTIFICIAL SPONGE
Page Range: p.209-214
Author(s): Tianchi Wang; Song Kong; Chingping Wong
File size: 309K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
Artificial sponge was used as the template to produce carbon/epoxy resin composites with interpenetrating network structure. Carbon with a network structure was first obtained by the pyrolysis of sponge. The composites were then obtained by injecting epoxy resin into the carbon. Their microstructures and wear properties were analyzed. The results show that the structure of sponge controlled the interpenetrating network structures of the carbon/ epoxy resin composites. The carbon-network in the composites was shown to stabilize the coefficient of friction of epoxy resin. The carbon also reduces the wear rate of the epoxy resin remarkably. 7 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION OF MONOLITHIC EPOXY RESIN-2-METHYLIMIDAZOLE POROUS MATERIAL FOR ADSORPTION/ELECTROSORPTION OF CU(II)
Page Range: p.215-222
Author(s): Sui Wang; Yan-Ling Tao; Rui-Feng Zhang
File size: 324K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.1-2

Abstract
A new monolithic porous polymer was successfully prepared by using epoxy resin (bisphenol A diglycidyl ether, EP), 2-methylimidazole (2-MZ) as curing agent and polyethylene glycol (PEG-1540) as porogen. The reaction-induced phase separation of this system was successfully controlled by the weight ratio of EP-MZPEG (2.0:0.27:2.8) and other reaction conditions. The stepwise polymerisation completed at 100 degrees C for 11 h without disturbance mode. The porogen was removed and the monolithic material with macro-through-pores was obtained. The synthesised polymer was characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The prepared material was found to be more efficient for Cu(II) adsorption as compare to Co(II) and Ni(II) in aqueous water. Furthermore, it was then used as the working electrode connected with a direct high-voltage power supply, and a platinum wire was used as counter electrode. The experimental conditions including the adsorption/ desorption time, pH value, adsorption/electrosorption mode, and voltage were investigated and optimized, and a new method for Cu(II) removal was established. After adsorption at pH 6, the stirring speed of 400 rpm and the voltage below 120V for 1 h, the loaded Cu(II) was then eluted with 3 mL of 5% HNO3 solution for 10 min, and determined with inductively coupled plasma atom emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). The results showed that the adsorption rate was improved significantly by the electrically enhancing means, and the recovery was > 95%. 33 Refs.

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