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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF POLYURETHANE ELASTOMER REINFORCED WITH CACO3 NANOPARTICLES
Page Range: p.575-580
Author(s): Zhengping Zhao; Qiang Guo; Junzhi Qian; Guoliang Pan
File size: 309K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In this work polyurethane (PU) elastomers based on poly(propylene glycol), diisocyanate and 2,2-Bis (hydroxymethyl)propionic acid were synthesised. CaCO3 nanoparticles were modified through esterification to increase their interactions with the PU matrix. A series of nanocomposites from polyurethane incorporated with various low concentrations of calcium carbonate were obtained. The effects of nanoparticles content on mechanical properties and the tribological behaviour of the PU composites filled with CaCO3 nanoparticles were investigated. Investigations of the worn surfaces showed that the fillers of CaCO3 nanoparticles were able to enhance the adhesion of the transfer films to the surface of counterpart ring, so they significantly reduced the wear rate of the PU matrix. 15 Refs.

Title: FLEXED-PLATE LOW ENERGY IMPACT OF AN EPOXY-CARBON FIBRE LAMINATE
Page Range: p.581-588
Author(s): Martinez A B; Xiang G; Arencon D
File size: 384K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
A model for predicting the contact duration, force, indentation, displacement and restitution coefficient has been developed for the low energy impact with an hemispherical tip of a composite laminated plate. The model is based in the Hertz law and the thin plate small deflection theory. The governing equations for the motion were first proposed and then solved. Several tests were conducted using two weight drop tower testers with different test geometries. Comparison between the model predictions and the experimental results shows a very good agreement between the modelled and the experimental forces, contact times, displacements, depth of penetration and restitution coefficients. 10 Refs.

Title: PLASTICISING AND STABILISING EFFECT OF NOVEL EPOXIDISED MEE OIL ON PVC
Page Range: p.589-600
Author(s): Gamage P K; Farid A S
File size: 581K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
The plasticising and stabilising effects of novel epoxidised Mee oil (EMO) and its derivatives on poly (vinyl chloride) were investigated. Peroxymethanoic acid was used to epoxidise Mee oil and the product was characterised by FTIR, iodine value, and oxirane content. Solubility parameter values were also determined. Plasticising effects of PVC incorporating EMO were evaluated using tensile and mechanical properties as well as FTIR. It was found that substantial levels of 100% epoxidised oil derivatives of Mee oil (E100M) could be added to PVC; typically about 50 phr E100M with 30 phr of DOP. It was observed that increasing levels of E100M with DOP enhanced the plasticising efficiency; flexibility, percentage elongation, softness, and MFI. The stability provided by EMO in terms of changes in elastic modulus during high-temperature ageing was modelled kinetically, and it was found that the kinetic model obeyed a law of the form: ln (log Ea - log E) = kt + C Activation energy values for the change in elastic modulus of PVC suggest some degree of synergism between EMO and Ca/Zn stearate system. Clearly E100M may be regarded as an effective secondary plasticiser as well as a stabiliser; perhaps more so than the other oil derivatives of Mee oil. 16 Refs.

Title: STUDY OF DIFFUSION PERFORMANCE AND PREPARATION TECHNOLOGY OF THE COLOURED PMIA FIBRE
Page Range: p.601-608
Author(s): Li-Qi Liu; Lei Chen; Zu-Ming Hu; Jun-Rong Yu; Jing-Zhu
File size: 440K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Poly(m-phenylene isophthalamide) (PMIA) fibre is a kind of aromatic polyamide fibre, which can be prepared by a wet-spinning method. In this work, the process conditions of spinning influenced the performance and structure of the coloured PMIA fibre, and these conditions included spinning speed, coagulation bath, etc. Because the diffusion coefficient was associated with the performance and structure, the ratio of solvent to coagulant could explain the reason of influence of the coagulation bath on the fibre. In this study, PMIA spinning dopes with Colour Inde Blue 60 were first commixed in a pressurizer and then spun into a coagulation bath under a pressure of around 0.3 MPa. At a coagulation bath temperature of 50 degrees C, pure or dope-dyed PMIA fibres were prepared by wet spinning, and then the spun fibres were extracted by an ultrasonic oscillation method. The effect of the jet stretch ratio and the temperature and concentration of coagulation bath on the ratio of diffusion coefficient of solvent to coagulator were analysed during spinning process of dope-dyed PMIA fibres. The properties and structures of coloured PMIA fibres were characterized by SEM. Finally the optimized spinning technology of the dope-dyed PMIA fibre was obtained. 19 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION OF HIGH MOLECULAR WEIGHT POLY(VINYL CARBAZOLE)/POLYSTYRENE BLEND WEB BY ELECTROSPINNING
Page Range: p.609-620
Author(s): Hee Sam Kim; Ki Bum Lee; Young Jae Lee; Min Jae Kim; Jin Wook Cha; Tae Hwan Oh; Seok Kyun Noh; Yong Rok Lee; Sung Soo Han; Eun Joo Shin; Yeong Soon Gal; Won Seok Lyoo
File size: 840K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
To prepare fine and even poly(N-vinyl carbazole) (PVCz)/polystyrene (PS) blend webs, we performed a series of experiments varying processing parameters, including the type of solvent, PVCz/PS blend ratio, applied voltage, and tip to the collector distance (TCD). It was found that the morphology and the average diameter of PVCz/ PS blend web were strongly correlated with electrospinning conditions. The morphologies of PVCz/PS blend webs were beaded or fine fibre structures, depending on the blend ratio of PVCz and PS. Increasing content of PS in the spinning solution tended to produce higher spinnability and the average diameter of electrospun web became smaller. The average diameter of the PVCz/PS blend web was slightly decreased with increasing applied voltage. In the case of TCDs, there was no significant effect on the PVCz/PS blend web morphologies but on increasing the TCD, the average diameter of the PVCz/PS blend webs slightly decreased. 15 Refs.

Title: FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF PVA/SPI/SIO2 HYBRID FIBRES VIA ELECTROSPINNING TECHNIQUE
Page Range: p.621-628
Author(s): Hualin Wang; Qin Jiang; Suwei Jiang; Shaotong Jiang
File size: 437K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In this work, an electrospinning technique was developed for the fabrication of poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA)/soy protein isolate (SPI) /SiO2 hybrid fibres with PVA, SPI and tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) as precursors. The effects of SiO2 content, sodium dodecylsulphate and electrospinning electrical field strength on the morphology and structure of the hybrid fibres were investigated. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed that uniform hybrid fibres about 200 nm in diameter were obtained at a weight ratio of PVA to SPI 8:2, SiO2 content 5.0 wt.%, sodium dodecylsulphate 0.6 wt.% and electrical field strength 0.90 kV cm-1. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns showed that the crystalline structure of PVA was somewhat destroyed as PVA was hybridized with SPI and SiO2, and further destroyed under electrospinning process as the stretched molecular chains of the fibre solidified rapidly at high elongation rates, resulting in the amorphism of PVA/SPI/SiO2 hybrid fibres. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) showed that the components of PVA, SPI and SiO2 nanoparticles were linked by hydrogen bonds or Si-O-C bonds in the hybrid fabric networks. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) tests showed that the presence of SiO2 nanoparticles considerably improved the thermal stability of the hybrid fibres. Therefore, the PVA/SPI/SiO2 hybrid fibres may have potential as a new fibre in dressings, tissue engineering or drug delivery. 30 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES EVALUATION OF AN EPOXY RESIN TOUGHENED BY A COMBINATION OF REACTIVE POLYESTER AND KAOLIN
Page Range: p.629-639
Author(s): Bakar M; Bialkowska A; Rudecka J; Bachan D
File size: 390K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
The present work investigates the effect of reactive polyester and kaolin on the mechanical and adhesive properties of brittle epoxy resin. The impact strength (IS), flexural strength and critical stress intensity factor (KC), as well as the adhesive strength under tensile and impact conditions, were evaluated as functions of the modifier content. The results obtained showed an improvement in the impact strength and flexural strength as well as adhesive strength under impact and tensile conditions due to kaolin and polyester addition. However, the flexural modulus decreased with the polyester and increased with the kaolin content. Hybrid compositions containing 30 wt.% of polyester and 30 wt.% of kaolin showed enhanced tensile adhesive strength as well as impact adhesive strength in comparison to the virgin epoxy resin, exhibiting a synergic effect. SEM micrographs confirmed the presence of a regular and homogeneous stratified structure with particles embedded in the polymer matrix, explaining the improvement of mechanical properties. 25 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION OF NANOCOMPOSITES BASED ON LDPE/PERLITE: MECHANICAL AND MORPHOLOGICAL STUDIES
Page Range: p.639-646
Author(s): Sahraeian R; Hashemi S A; Esfandeh M; Ghasemi I
File size: 348K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Perlite nano-particles were prepared through a mechanical grinding process and surface-modified by poly(methyl hydrogen siloxane) (PMHS). Nanocomposites based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and different compositions of treated and untreated nano particles were prepared via melt mixing of the ingredients on a corotating twin screw extruder. Laser light-scattering (LLS) was used to analyse the mean particle size of the nano perlite while Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was employed to investigate surface modification of the particles. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was used to evaluate the dispersion status of the nano particles in the polymer matrix. Results indicated a relatively good dispersion of the particles (50-500 nm in size) within the LDPE matrix. Mechanical measurements showed remarkable increases in tensile strength and modulus of the nanocomposites containing surface modified perlite, compared to the neat polymer. Also, flexural strength and modulus were increased with increasing nano perlite, while impact properties were reduced. 23 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF ELECTRON BEAM IRRADIATION ON THE MECHANICAL, THERMAL AND DYNAMIC MECHANICAL BEHAVIOUR OF WASTE POLYETHYLENE-SHORT PET FIBRE COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.647-658
Author(s): Sukanya Satapathy; Nag A; Golok Bihari Nando
File size: 500K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Electron beam irradiation of short PET fibre-reinforced waste polyethylene, virgin high density polyethylene and blends of waste polyethylene/high density polyethylene in the ratio 50:50 was carried out to study the effects on their physico-mechanical, thermal and dynamic mechanical properties. For comparison short PET fibres alone were irradiated with electron beam, and composites were also prepared with waste polyethylene, high density polyethylene and blends of waste polyethylene with high density polyethylene. Only a single proportion of the PET fibre was used, i.e. 50% by weight, and the dosage of the electron beam was 250 kGy. The results embodied in this paper showed that the tensile strength, flexural strength, flexural modulus, hardness increased with no change in elongation at break when the composites were subjected to the electron beam. The results obtained were confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and thermogravimetric analysis. Dynamic mechanical properties were also measured for suggesting utilisation of these composites for commercial applications. 12 Refs.

Title: DENSITY AND WATER ABSORPTION OF SUGARCANE BAGASSE-FILLED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.659-664
Author(s): Riza Wirawan; SM Sapuan; Robiah Yunus; Khalina Abdan
File size: 303K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Sugarcane bagasse is divided into two main components, pith and rind, with 'pith' representing the inner part of the sugarcane bagasse and 'rind' the outer part. In this study, both part of bagasse and were used separately as a filler in poly(vinyl chloride) to construct a natural fibre thermoplastic composite. The bagasse incorporated in poly(vinyl chloride) using internal mixer followed by hot-pressing to obtain a plate of sugarcane bagasse/ PVC composite with various filler loading (10%, 20%, 30%, and 40% in weight). Density of the composites was determined and the composites were subjected to water immersion tests in order to study the effect of filler loading and fibre source on the density and water absorption behaviour. It was observed that the physical properties were influenced significantly by both fibre source and fibre content. 13 Refs.

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