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Title: FIBRE VOLUME FRACTION AND CHAMBER LENGTH IMPACT ON DETACHED VERSUS ATTACHED RESIN INJECTION PULTRUSION
Page Range: p.755-766
Author(s): Palikhel D R; Roux J A; Jeswani A L
File size: 859K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Resin injection pultrusion is an efficient and highly automated continuous process for high-quality, low-cost, high-volume manufacturing of composites. This research focuses on the impact of the fibre volume fraction and chamber length on resin injection pultrusion. Fibre volume fraction impact on the strength of the final composite is important since higher fibre volume fraction composites generally yield higher strength. Manufacturing composites with higher fibre volume fraction are more difficult because higher fibre volume fractions require higher injection pressures to achieve complete reinforcement wet out and thus yields higher maximum interior chamber wall pressures. In this work the impact of fibre volume fraction on complete wet out of reinforced fibre is investigated in the attached-die and detached-die resin injection pultrusion process with various resin injection chamber length considerations. This work explores the resin minimum injection pressure needed to achieve complete wet out, the corresponding maximum pressure inside the resin injection chamber so as to improve injection chamber design to keep the resin pressure within the injection chamber within reasonable constraints for different fibre volume fractions. 19 Refs.

Title: EXPERIMENTAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A CURING THERMOSET EPOXY-ANHYDRIDE SYSTEM: ANALYSIS OF TIME SWEEP DATA FOR VISCOELASTIC CURE-TEMPERATURE-TIME SUPERPOSITION
Page Range: p.767-780
Author(s): Xiaosong Huang; Bhaskar Patham; Hitt J
File size: 867K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
In this work, a potentially more efficient method for the generation of the cure-temperature-time master curve, using frequency-time-sweep experiments, is discussed in the context of a curing thermoset epoxy resin-anhydride system. The proposed methodology involves the characterisation of the curing resin in the frequency domain rather than the time domain. The successful implementation of this methodology can facilitate capturing the evolution of the resin modulus covering the entire duration of cure (both before and after the onset of gelation), which is not feasible with stress-relaxation based approaches. The experimental method and the analytical procedure adopted for generating the master curve are described in detail. Several challenges involved in the successful implementation of the proposed method are identified, and recommendations to remedy these potential problems, in order to generate a theoretically consistent interpolatable cure-temperature-time master curve, are presented. 15 Refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF RARE-EARTH COUPLING AGENT ON NON-ISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF WOOD FLOUR/POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.781-790
Author(s): Liping Li; Huizi Li; Chuigen Guo
File size: 484K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The influence of a rare-earth coupling agent (RE) on the non-isothermal crystallisation behaviour of PP was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. Experimental results showed that use of RE caused a decrease in the crystallisation temperature, melting temperature and crystallinity of PP in WF/RE/PP compared with those in WF/PP. The Avrami, Ozawa and Mo methods were used to describe the crystallisation process. The Avrami and Ozawa methods neglected the secondary crystallisation and followed primary crystallisation. The Mo approach could successfully describe the overall crystallisation process. The relation of the half times of crystallisation (t1/2) of the three samples, t1/2(WF/PP)
Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF BIOCOMPATIBLE SCAFFOLDS BASED ON GELATIN AND HYALURONIC ACID FOR FIBROBLASTS CULTURE
Page Range: p.791-796
Author(s): Zhihua Zhou; Zhongmin Yang; Tianlong Huang; Lihua Liu; Qingquan Liu; Wennan Zeng; Dafu Cao; Songjiang Ma
File size: 389K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Gelatin/hyaluronic acid (Gel/HA) scaffolds were prepared by using the freeze-drying method after crosslinking with 1-ethyl-(3-3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide (EDC). The porous structure was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and the wettability of Gel/HA film was also studied by measuring their contact angle. The biological behaviour of the scaffolds was analysed by studying the cell behaviour using a fibroblast cell line and standard biological MTT test. The results showed that the scaffold had an inter-connected pore structure with a sufficient pore size for use as a support for the growth of fibroblasts. The contact angle decreased with increasing HA content, whereas the cell attachment and proliferation improved with decreasing HA content. Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) demonstrated a normal cell distribution and proliferation on the porous Gel/HA scaffolds. 20 Refs.

Title: STUDY ON DIELECTRIC, MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE (PP) COMPOSITES WITH GROUND TYRE RUBBER (GTR)
Page Range: p.797-808
Author(s): Mujal-Rosas R; Orrit- Prat J; Ramis-Juan X; Marin-Genesca M; Ahmed Rahhali
File size: 641K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Mass production of tyres and their subsequent storage after use is a serious environmental problem whose solution has been attempted in various ways. One of these is the mixture of old, used tyres (GTR) with various thermoplastic and thermostable polymers. These blends are made by modifying the pre-treatment to which the GTR is subjected, the degree of devulcanisation, the mixing or pressing conditions, etc. Later, the mixtures are analysed structurally and mechanically, looking for possible industrial applications. The present work aims to obtain materials suitable for the electrical industry from the mixture of polypropylene (PP) with old used tyres (GTR), starting from the requirement of minimum recycling costs, i.e. by using vulcanised GTR without any prior treatment, but acting on the particle sizes with a simple and inexpensive screening. A large number of composites have been analysed, and these have been submitted to dielectric, mechanical, thermal and microstructural examination. Composites were obtained using the three GTR particle sizes (p<200 mum, 200500 mum), and the seven concentrations of GTR in the composite (0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, 40%, 50% and 70%), meaning a total of 21 new composites. In addition, in order to have the dielectric tests as exhaustive as possible and show the behaviour of the composite under widely changing conditions, a wide range of temperatures (30 deg.C to 120 deg.C) and frequencies (1(.)10-2 Hz and 3(.)106 Hz) were used. All these data have allowed an accurate characterisation of the properties of the new composites, and according to these results, possible electrical applications have been explored, with the requirement that they must comply with Official Regulations. 36 Refs.

Title: THE DECOMPOSITION OF BISPHENOL A DIGLYCIDYL ETHER/ALICYCLIC AMINE HARDENED NETWORKS IN NEAR-CRITICAL WATER
Page Range: p.809-816
Author(s): Liu Yuyan; Li Li; Wu Songquan; Liu Yuting
File size: 406K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The decomposition of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether/alicyclic amine hardened networks in near-critical water was studied in this paper. It is possible to decompose thermosetting epoxy resin completely at 260 degrees C for 1 h with 1 g/5 ml feedstock ratio. The decomposition rate of epoxy resin increased with an increase in reaction temperature. The decrease in sample size led to higher decomposition rate, and the catalysts NH4Cl and H2SO4 had the higher positive effect on the decomposition rate. Thermogravimetry analysis (TGA) showed that thermal decomposition was not the primary factor for the collapse of networks in the temperature range studied. Gas ChromatographyMass Spectrometry (GC-MS) showed the main components of the soluble decomposed compounds were bisphenol A, hydroxybenzene, olefin and ketone compounds and their content varied during the reaction. The hydrolysis of ether bond was regarded as the key factor in the process of decomposition reaction of bisphenol A diglycidyl ether/alicyclic amine hardened networks. 17 Refs.

Title: MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES ANALYSIS OF POLYPROPYLENE REINFORCED WITH POLYAMIDE MICROFIBRE OBTAINED FROM SHREDDED TYRES
Page Range: p.817-822
Author(s): Parres F; Crespo-Amoros J E; Nadal-Gisbert A; Navarro R
File size: 334K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The importance of recovering waste materials generated by industrialised societies is mainly due to the environmental impact that they have, and one of the principal problems is the presence of end of life tyres. The use of waste microfibre obtained from shredded tyres as reinforcement in polypropylene matrices offers an interesting opportunity for recycling of the waste microfibre, in order to obtain 'value added products' from polypropylene (PP)/waste microfibre tyre composites. The microfibres obtained from shredded tyres were used as a reinforcing material in compositions with polypropylene (PP). The blending proportions were: (1) 10% microfibre 90% PP; (2) 20% microfibre, 80% PP; (3) 30% microfibre, 70% PP; (4) 40% microfibre, 60% PP, (5) 50% microfibre, 50% PP and (6) 80% microfibre, 20% PP. The mechanical and thermal properties were analysed. In this case polypropylene mixed with polyamide (PA) microfibres show a decrease in tensile strength and elongation at break, however, impact strength and Vicat Softening temperature values increase with polyamide microfibre content. Continuity in the matrix phase was observed by scanning electron microscopy up to loadings of 40% microfibre. 17 Refs.

Title: THE DEVELOPMENT OF A POLYMER COMPOSITE FILAMENT FOR THERMO-SENSITIVE APPLICATIONS
Page Range: p.823-828
Author(s): Danmei Sun; Ketan Vadodaria; Stylios G K
File size: 372K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
A type of smart thermochromic filament has been developed, composed of 35% UMB Blue and 65% polypropylene. It was able to change colour between white and blue depending on the temperature. A set of examinations including DSC, SEM, XRD, FTIR and tensile strength test, has been carried out to study the properties of the smart filament. The successful development of the thermochromic filament will enable textile based smart products to be developed for applications where the effect can be indicated by the change of colour. 12 Refs.

Title: BENTONITE-ACRYLAMIDE-HISTIDINE-CU(II) MICROCOMPOSITE FOR CYTOCHROME C ADSORPTION
Page Range: p.829-836
Author(s): Birnur Akkaya; Recep Akkaya
File size: 357K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Bentonite-acrylamide-histidine with an average particle diameter of 200-1000 (mu)m was produced by bulk polymerisation of bentonite, acrylamide, bisacrylamide, AIBN and histidine. Bentonite-acrylamide-histidineCu(II) microcomposite was prepared by loading copper ions. The microcomposite was characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), specific surface area and elemental analysis. Cytochrome c adsorption studies were performed, for the first time, by using the new metal chelated affinity support (bentonite-acrylamide-histidineCu(II)) microcomposite in batchwise experiments. 47 Refs.

Title: ANALYSIS OF THE DRAPING BEHAVIOUR OF MULTI-LAYER TEXTILES USING DIGITAL IMAGE PROCESSING
Page Range: p.837-844
Author(s): Taha I; Abdin Y; Ebeid S
File size: 901K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The draping behaviour of woven fabrics in moulds is essential for the production of textile composites that should fulfil specific aesthetic and performance requirements. This study focuses on the draping behaviour of multiple layers of natural jute and glass fibre woven fabrics and their hybrid combinations. Results show that it is not only the number of layers that plays a vital role in determining the overall draping behaviour of multilayer reinforcements, but also the order in which the setup is prepared. Image processing techniques using Matlab were performed to describe the draping behaviour of single, double and triple layer setups. 16 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND PROPERTIES OF POLYETHERIMIDES BY NUCLEOPHILIC DISPLACEMENT REACTION
Page Range: p.845-852
Author(s): Rajasekar S; Venkatesan D
File size: 323K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
A series of polyetherimides was prepared by nucleophilic displacement reaction of bisnitrophthalimides containing ether and sulphur linkages with aromatic diols in dimethyl sulphoxide. The two new bisnitrophthalimides, 4,4'-bis(Nphenoxy4-nitrophthaliimide)-2,2'-diphenylisopropylidene and 4,4'-bis(N-phenoxy-4-nitrophthalimide)diphenylsulphide were prepared from the corresponding diamines and 4-nitrophthalic anhydride. The nitro displacement polymerisation yielded high molecular weight polyetherimides with inherent viscosities of 0.460.54 dL/g. The polyetherimides were soluble in dipolar aprotic solvents such as DMSO, DMF and NMP. These polymers had glass transition temperatures around 200 degrees C. Thermogravimetric analysis indicated that the 10% weight loss temperature for these polymers ranged from 430 to 490 degrees C with a high char yield at 800 degrees C. 18 Refs.

Title: EFFECTS OF PLANT POLYPHENOLS ON THE INTERFACE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF RUBBER/SILICA COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.853-860
Author(s): Congsheng Xu; Guokai Xu; Mingliang Du; Han Zhu; Yaqin Fu; Xianming Zhang
File size: 564K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Based on the abundant surface hydroxyl groups of plant polyphenols and their tendency for complexation with metal ions, a facile and green approach to improve the interfacial interactions between silica and a rubber matrix is proposed. The interface interactions of plant phenols with silica and Zn ions are characterized by attenuated total refraction Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The results suggest that, with the introduction of plant phenols, strong interface interaction between rubber matrix and silica can be formed through hydrogen bonding and chelating effects. The investigation of mechanical performance of the composites indicates that the proposed approach produces remarkable reinforcing effects on the rubber matrix. 26 Refs.

Title: TENSILE AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF DIFFERENT MORPHOLOGICAL PARTS OF SUGAR PALM FIBRE-REINFORCED UNSATURATED POLYESTER COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.861-866
Author(s): Sahari J; Sapuan S M; Ismarrubie Z N; Rahman M Z A
File size: 410K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 20
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The present study investigated the tensile and impact behaviour of unsaturated polyester composites reinforced by fibre from different parts of the sugar palm tree. Sugar palm fibre i.e. sugar palm frond (SPF), sugar palm bunch (SPB), black sugar palm fibre (ijuk) and sugar palm trunk (SPT) which have high content of cellulose, low density, abundance and low cost, have the potential for polymer reinforcement. All composites were fabricated and labelled as SPF/PE, SPB/PE, ijuk/PE and SPT/PE. It was found that SPF/PE had the highest tensile strength which was 15.179 MPa ( plus/minus 2.425) followed by SPB/PE, ijuk/PE and SPT/PE with 12.809 MPa ( plus/minus 1.580), 11.473 MPa ( plus/minus 0.536) and 9.817 MPa ( plus/minus 1.890) respectively. For the impact strength analysis, SPF/PE showed the highest value (8.091 kJ m-2). Generally, SPF/PE had better tensile and impact properties than the other composites, due its high cellulose content. 14 Refs.

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