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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: INTERRELATION BETWEEN CONTACT ANGLE AND INTERLAYER SPACING OF MONTMORILLONITE CLAY USED IN POLYMER NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.129-132
Author(s): Lemiye Atabek Savas; Soner Savas
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
In this study, the effect of interlayer d-spacing on the contact angle (-c) of montmorillonite nanoclays was investigated. Three type of montmorillonites, pure hydrophilic, modified with 35-45 wt.% dimethyl dialkyl (C14-C18) amine (Nanomer I.44P) and modified with (1-hexadecyl) tri-methylammonium bromide (HDTMAB), were used for comparison. According to the results, it was found that cations can be replaced by organic cations and interlayer spacing increases. Although organophilic montmorillonite clays whose surface energy is lowered and is more compatible with organic polymers, they shows hydrophobic behaviour with water. Modified clays were found to have a larger interlayer d-spacing and also a larger time-independent contact angle in comparison to the un-modified clay. 8 Refs.

Title: PRODUCTION OF A POLYMERIC COMPOSITE MATERIAL FILLED WITH HALOGEN-FREE FLAME RETARDANT
Page Range: p.133-138
Author(s): Melih Can Yilmaz; Ayhan Ezdesir; Sevgi Ulutan; Pinar Tuzum-Demir A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
In the present study a composite material to be used in cable industry, which has LDPE/EVA (low density polyethylene/ ethylene-vinyl acetate copolymer) polymer blend and alumina trihydrate (ATH) filler, which is a halogen-free flame retardant (HFFR), has been formulated and characterized in terms of its mechanical, rheological and flame retardant properties comparing with the commercial mixtures. Composite blends having 40% polymer component with various PE/EVA ratio and two PE type and 60% ATH were prepared. As the EVA content of composites increased from 26% to 65% the storage modulus increased by 180-220%, viscosity increases by %61-107. Composites containing 65% EVA exhibit similar properties to the commercial one. Limiting Oxygen Index (LOI) value was found as 30 for composites containing 26 mass% of EVA, it increased to 32-34 when EVA content increased to 65 mass%. 10 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF FLEXIBLE POLYVINYLCHLORIDE-COPPER COMPOSITE FILMS
Page Range: p.139-144
Author(s): Emrah Kurt; Cenk Yagiz Ozcelik; Senem Yetgin; Filiz Ozmihci Omurlu; Devrim Balkose
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Flexible PVC films are statically charged due to their low electrical conductivity. This creates fire threat during its handling. Conductive materials are added to films to prevent this. In the present study it was aimed to prepare PVC- copper composite films by sol gel technique and characterize the prepared films. It was aimed to increase the electrical conductivity of the films by adding copper powder. However, the copper particles settled down to bottom instead of forming a conductive network that covers the whole cross section. Thus at the film cross section a plastic upper phase and a copper rich lower phase were present. The film did not conduct electricity due to this uneven distribution. The minimum volumetric and surface resistivities of the films were at the order of 109 ohm-cm and 1010 ohm square respectively. 6 Refs.

Title: MOLECULARLY IMPRINTED POLYMERS AND THEIR SYNTHESIS BY DIFFERENT METHODS
Page Range: p.145-150
Author(s): Fadim Yemis; Pinar Alkan; Berin Yenigul; Mesut Yenigul
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Over the past thirty years, molecular imprinting has aroused great research interest for scientists. This attention can be explained by the serious potential advantages of using molecularly imprinted polymers in place of natural receptors and enzymes such as their superior durability, low-cost and easy preparation. Furthermore molecular imprinting is a promising technique for the preparation of polymer composites with predetermined selectivity and high affinity. This mini review examines and evaluates the preparation technique and utility application of molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) in several areas. The review begins with a brief introduction to MIPs with a focus on their preparations and continues with application areas. 27 Refs.

Title: POLYSTYRENE-ORGANOCLAY NANOCOMPOSITES PREPARED VIA IN-SITU EMULSION POLYMERIZATION
Page Range: p.151-156
Author(s): Cetintas M; Uyanik N
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
In this study, polystyrene-clay nanocomposites (PSNC's) were prepared via in-situ bulk and in-situ emulsion polymerisation. The effect of organoclay and the architecture of surfactant were investigated. For the investigation of the effect of surfactant, organoclays were synthesised containing clay modifiers having different structures. Trimethylhexadecyl ammonium chloride, dimethylbenzylhexadecyl ammonium chloride and dimethylbenzyl(4vinyl) hexadecyl ammonium chloride, which is synthesised in laboratory, modified clays were synthesised. Pristine polystyrene (PS) was synthesised by bulk and emulsion polymerisation for comparison, and PSNC's containing 3 wt.% organoclays were prepared by both these polymerisation methods. Structural analysis of synthesised surfactant was identified by Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) Spectrometer. The interlayer spacing of silicate layers and the morphology of samples were examined by using the X-ray Diffraction (XRD) Spectrometer and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) images, respectively. Thermal properties of nanocomposites were determined by Thermogravimetric analyser (TGA) and Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC). It is observed that organoclays and PS were compatible to each other and each organoclay could form a nanocomposite structure with PS. PSNC's exhibited better properties than pristine PS. Nanocomposites prepared by in-situ emulsion polymerisation resulted with better thermal properties and higher interlayer distances than that prepared by in-situ bulk polymerisation. In order to improve some properties of PS such as thermal stability, preparation of PSNC's by in-situ emulsion polymerisation has been suggested. 12 Refs.

Title: INDUSTRIAL PLANT APPLICATION OF HYDROPHOBIC COATING ON TILE SURFACE
Page Range: p.157-160
Author(s): Ayse Tunali; Neslihan Tamsu Selli
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Nowadays, ceramic tile surface properties such as easy to clean surface is highly demanded by the market. In order to design these new easy to clean-hydrophobic surfaces, nanomaterials and/or hybrid materials will be indispensable. At present, these novel materials are hardly used in ceramic tile manufacturing processes. It is therefore necessary to develop a completely new methodology in order to suitably choose, handle, and incorporate these materials into the ceramic tile surface with a view to obtaining the desired properties. The aim of this investigation was the industrialisation of application of hydrophobic coating on tile surface by choosing appropriate tools and optimizing process parameters. Airtight mixing and spraying tank was designed to prevent gelation of hydrophobic solution during application. Then tile temperature and amount of solution was optimized. It has been observed that hydrophobic coating provide high contact angle without changing surface appearance of tiles. 7 Refs.

Title: ADSORPTION KINETICS STUDIES OF POLYMERIC NANOCOMPOSITE COAGULANTS
Page Range: p.161-170
Author(s): Seher Uzunsakal; Serhat Zeytinci; Uyanik O L; Nurseli Uyanik
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
The aim of this study is to investigate the adsorption characteristics of dicyandiamide-formaldehyde resin (DCD-F) nanocomposites. For this purpose, 2%, 4%, and 8% unmodified layered silicate clay (Na-Montmorillonite) containing DCD-F nanocomposites (DCD-F- MMT) were prepared. The synthesised samples were structurally defined by XRD, SEM-EDX, and TGA characterisations. The adsorption performance of nanocomposites was tested by using two anionic dyes. Adsorption capacities of pure resin and three nanocomposites were followed against time and the nanocomposite containing 8% Na-MMT (DCD-F-MMT8%) was found to have the highest equilibrium adsorption capacity (qe). Therefore, the effects of dye concentration, pH, and temperature on qe were investigated using DCD-F-MMT8%. The kinetic and thermodynamic parameters of adsorption were obtained based on the experimental data. 10 Refs.

Title: FABRICATION OF COMPOSITE TILES FROM POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE) (PET) AND MICRO-MARBLE PARTICLES REINFORCED WITH GLASS FIBER MATS: COMPARISON OF RECYCLED AND COMMERCIAL RESIN
Page Range: p.171-176
Author(s): Galip Icduygu M; Levent Aktas; Cengiz Altan M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Polyester composite tiles (PCT) are synthesised from PET and fabricated by compression moulding using micromarble clusters as filler. Identical PCTs are also fabricated by using commercially available polyester resin to compare properties. Three batches of marble clusters with different size distributions are used to assess the effect of filler particle size on mechanical properties. Tiles prepared using finer marble grades yield consistently higher flexural strength and stiffness values regardless of the synthesised or commercial polyester resin. However, the flexural strength and stiffness of the tiles prepared with commercial polyester are observed to be on average 1.8 and 2.5 fold higher, respectively. Prospects of improving mechanical properties are explored by reinforcing PC tiles with randomly oriented, discontinuous glass fibres. This is achieved by placing a single layer of glass fibre mat on the top and bottom tile surface. Presence of fibre mats leads to the formation of a graded particle size distribution across the mat thickness when the coarse grade marble dust is used. This distribution resulted in significant improvements in flexural strength, stiffness and overall toughness of the tiles. The improvements observed in PCTs prepared with synthesised polyester resin surpassed the improvements in their counterparts prepared with commercial polyester. In fact, the flexural strength of the glass fibre mat reinforced PCTs prepared with synthesised and commercial polyester resin are observed to be statistically identical. 18 Refs.

Title: FLEXIBLE PVC-SILICA COMPOSITES AS AN ADSORPTIVE MATERIAL FOR WATER SOLUBLE DYES
Page Range: p.177-182
Author(s): Sevgi Ulutan; Senem Yetgin; Devrim Balkose
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Methylene Blue (MB) adsorption studies were performed on flexible Polyvinyl Chloride/Silica composites which were obtained by using plastisol-plastigel technology. Change of MB concentration in aqueous phase as the adsorption process advanced was followed by using visible spectroscopy. The diffusion of MB through the composites exhibited non-Fickian behaviour with a diffusivity of 10-11 m2s-1. Making use of such PVC-silica composite sheets as column packing, the packing time will be reduced and the surface available for diffusion will be increased. 22 Refs.

Title: PRODUCTION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYETHYLENE/CALCIUM CARBONATE COMPOSITE MATERIALS BY USING CALCIUM CARBONATE DRY AND WET COATED WITH DIFFERENT FATTY ACIDS
Page Range: p.183-188
Author(s): Ilhan Ozen; Suleyman Simsek; Feride Eren
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
In this study, calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was coated by suitable chemicals using aqueous or dry coating methods in the optimum conditions. Uncoated calcium carbonate having a mean particle size (d50) of 1.6 microns and a top cut (d98) of 8 microns was provided commercially and it was dry and wet coated with saturated fatty acids whose carbon numbers vary between 14 and 18. Coating amount was adjusted to 0.5-2%. Particle size and particle size distribution of the calcium carbonates before and after coating were investigated. After characterisation of the coated calcium carbonates, they were incorporated into linear low density polyethylene (LLDPE) in changing amounts using a twin screw extruder. The effects of coating chemicals, coating conditions and filler amount on composite materials were studied by evaluating the thermal (DSC and TGA) and appearance (Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM)) analyses. 11 Refs.

Title: USING THE CONSTRUCTION CHEMICALS FOR REINFORCEMENT OF THE KARATEKIN UNIVERSITY BUILDING AGAINST EARTHQUAKES
Page Range: p.189-192
Author(s): Suleyman Uluoz; Selahattin Duzbasan; Erol Yakit; Tolga Uluoz
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
The CO2 released during the production of cement is one of the major factors that affect the environmental pollution. In order to gain 1 ton CEM I cement, approximately 900 kg CO2 receiver is let out to the environment. Taking that the cement production all around the world is nearly 3 billion tones into account, it can be considered how much the flue gasses released by the cement factories affects the greenhouse gas formation. Thus, using excessive cement in concrete production causes an increase in environmental pollution. By using the construction chemicals in order to produce concrete, more qualified concrete can be provided as using less cement, the unit manufacturing cost can be reduced and a major contribution can be provided for preventing the environmental pollution. 1 Ref.

Title: COMPARISON OF THE PERFORMANCE OF NEWLY DEVELOPED HYDROPHOBIC COATINGS WITH TRADE ONE
Page Range: p.193-194
Author(s): Neslihan Tamsu Selli; Ayse Tunali
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
There is a considerable demand for wall tiles with a hydrophobic surface. Because hydrophobic tile surfaces nonadhesive towards soil, ice, graffiti and other unwanted contaminants. In this study newly developed hydrophobic solution and commercially available solution was applied on the tiles to compare their performance. The two coated tiles were compared regarding their abrasion and chemical resistance. It has been observed that newly developed hydrophobic solution has higher contact angle after washability test. It also has higher durability against citric acid and hydrochloric acid. 4 Refs.

Title: ADVANCED COMPOSITE APPLICATIONS IN THE CONSTRUCTION INDUSTRY
Page Range: p.195-198
Author(s): Ayse Tunali
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Composites offer the designers a combination of properties not available in traditional materials. In addition to the use of composite material in the construction itself it has also gained momentum in the product that complete construction. For example, composite materials have been used in products that are used in bathroom (sink, closet, urine, faucet, seat) or that are used as ceramic coating material (wall tile, floor tile, porcelain stoneware tile). New advanced surface functionalities such as easy to clean, self-cleaning, anti-fingerprint, anti-slip, antibacterial, anti-microbial, stain resistance, wear resistance, scratch resistance have attracted much recent interest in the scientific community. In order to design these new surfaces nano materials and/or composite materials indispensable. The ultimate goal of this study is to present examples of these new functional products. 17 Refs.

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