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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: PROCESSING AND CHARACTERIZATION OF NATURAL FIBRE REINFORCED COMPOSITES USING LIGNIN PHENOLIC BINDER
Page Range: p.199-206
Author(s): Arunjunai Raj Mahendran; Wuzella G; Aust N; Muller U; Kandelbauer A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.4

Abstract
Natural fibre-reinforced composites were prepared using a lignin-phenolic resol binder, in which 30 wt.% of the phenol was substituted by a modified lignosulphonate from renewable resources. The reinforcement of the lignin phenolic binder matrix was accomplished by different natural fibres. The non-woven flax, flax/wood and flax/kenaf fibre mats were impregnated with the lignin-phenolic binder and they were compression-moulded at elevated temperature. The curing condensations of the synthesised lignin phenolic resins were characterized by differential scanning calorimetry. Water absorption, thickness swelling and flexural strengths of the natural fibre-reinforced composites were determined, as well as their thermal stability using thermogravimetric analysis. The flexural strengths of the flax/wood and flax/kenaf composites were higher than those of the flax reinforced composite. Morphological analysis using scanning electron microscopy showed an enhancement in fibre/matrix interaction for the flax/wood and flax/kenaf fibre mixtures. 21 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF THE BLENDING PROCESS AND FILLER LOADING ON THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SILICA-FILLED SBR/BR COMPOUNDS
Page Range: p.207-214
Author(s): Luping Ni; Jibin Wang; Haiyan Xu; Chifei Wu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.4

Abstract
The effects of the blending process on the mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber/cis-butadiene rubber/silica systems was studied in relation to the order of addition of two kinds of rubbers during blending. The specific blending method of two-step rubber feeding method led to different mixing conditions, and consequently the mechanical properties of the vulcanisates varied significantly. The blending process was mainly influenced by two factors: the wetting of the filler and the interactions of the materials. This work focused on the influence of filler loading on different blending methods, in order to build up the relationship between bound rubber and various properties in silica filled SBR/BR compounds. 15 Refs.

Title: FURAN-BASED NARROW-BAND-GAP COPOLYMERS FOR RED LIGHT-EMITTING DIODES AND BULK HETEROJUNCTION PHOTOVOLTAIC CELLS
Page Range: p.215-222
Author(s): Mingliang Sun; Li Wang; Renqiang Yang; Bin Zhang; Wei Yang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.4

Abstract
A series of conjugated copolymers (PFO-DFQ) derived from 2,3-dimethyl-5,8-difuran-2-yl-quinoxalines (DFQ) and 9,9-dioctylfluorene (DOF) were prepared by the palladium-catalysed Suzuki coupling reaction with molar feed ratios of DFQ around 1%, 5%, 15% 30% and 50% respectively. The obtained polymers were readily soluble in common organic solvents. The absorption spectra of the copolymers ranged from 300 nm to 560 nm, with two absorption peaks at around 390 nm and 480 nm, both in solution and thin film. The photoluminescence (PL) emission peaks were in the region from 465 nm to 611 nm in thin solid films. The electroluminescence (EL) emission peaks were from 550 nm to 712 nm, depending on the DFQ content. Bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells fabricated from composite films of PFO-DFQ copolymers and [6,6]-phenyl C61 butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM) as electron donor and electron acceptor respectively, showed power conversion efficiencies 0.13% with open-circuit voltage (Voc) of 0.60V and short-circuit current density (Jsc) of 0.68 mA/cm2 under AM1.5 solar simulator (100 mW/cm2). 15 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS OF POLY(STYRENE-CO-ACRYLONITRILE)/CLAY NANOCOMPOSITES IN SUPERCRITICAL CARBON DIOXIDE
Page Range: p.223-232
Author(s): Jing Wang; Jianfeng Zhong; Zhou Fang; Qingzhi Dong
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.4

Abstract
Poly(styrene-co-acrylonitrile)/fluorinated montmorillonite was successfully prepared in supercritical carbon dioxide (scCO2) by dispersion polymerisation. In this study, a mixed stabiliser system was applied and investigated. Poly(styrene-r-acrylonitrile)-block-poly(1,1,2,2-tetrahydroperfluorooctyl methacrylate) (PSAN-b-PFOMA) was synthesised and investigated as stabiliser in scCO2. Fluorinated surfactant was used for the modification of the montmorillonite. The fluorinated montmorillonite (FMMT) applied in the polymerisation was not only used as nanocomposite filler but also as a guest stabiliser. This study examined the stabilisation roles of stabiliser and guest stabiliser respectively. The optimum dosages of both compounds were studied. The polymerisation with mixed stabiliser resulted in high yield and high molecular weight. Moreover, a series of nanocomposites were characterized and the products showed excellent properties. It was found that the montmorillonite layer could be completely exfoliated using reasonable loading, and dispersed in the polymer matrix. In addition, the pressure of scCO2 was studied and the density of scCO2 was shown to be relevant to the stabilisation of the reaction. The mixed stabiliser system made the polymerisation more effective and the in-situ dispersion polymerisation performed in scCO2 was shown to be a useful method for the nanocomposites preparation. 37 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND CHARACTERIZATION OF BISMALEIMIDE MODIFIED VINYL ESTER MONOMER-UNSATURATED POLYESTER INTERCROSSLINKED HYBRID MATRICES
Page Range: p.233-242
Author(s): Chandramohan A; Mandhakini M; Dinakaran K; Alagar M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.4

Abstract
Intercrosslinked hybrid matrices were developed from N,N'-bismaleimido-4,4'-diphenyl methane (BMI) modified vinyl ester monomer (VEM), namely cyclohexyl-1,1'-bis[4-((gamma)-2-methylphenoxy)-(alpha)-hydroxypropylacrylate]unsaturated polyester (UP) resin. BMI-modified VEM-UP hybrid matrices were characterized for their mechanical properties, viz. tensile strength, flexural strength, unnotched izod impact strength and hardness as per ASTM standards. Data obtained from thermal studies indicated that the introduction of vinyl ester monomer into unsaturated polyester resin marginally reduced the values of heat distortion temperature and glass transition temperature compared with those of the neat UP resin. Scanning electron microscopy studies of BMI modified VEM-unsaturated polyester systems exhibited a homogeneous morphology, confirming efficient chemical interaction and the formation of intercrosslinked networks. 25 Refs.

Title: RHEOLOGICAL, THERMAL AND DYNAMIC MECHANICAL STUDIES OF THE LDPE/PERLITE NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.243-249
Author(s): Sahraeian R; Esfandeh M; Hashemi S A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.4

Abstract
Nanocomposites based on low-density polyethylene (LDPE) and nano perlite were prepared at various perlite contents via melt mixing in a twin-screw extruder. Rheological measurements, dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) tests were carried out on the nanocomposites. The results confirmed the establishment of interactions between LDPE matrix and treated nano perlite. In addition, dynamic mechanical properties and thermal stability of the treated nanocomposites were improved. 24 Refs.

Title: MODIFIED PET FIBRES FOR METAL ION AND DYE REMOVAL FROM AQUEOUS MEDIA
Page Range: p.251-258
Author(s): Majid Abdouss; Ahmad Mousavi Shoushtari; Nasrin Shamloo; Aminoddin Haji
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.4

Abstract
In this study, poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) fibres were modified with methacrylic acid (MAA) to provide new chelating fibres. Benzoyl peroxide (BPO) was used as initiator. To increase the grafting yield, a pretreatment with formaldehyde was done, which increased the efficiency of grafting treatment by connecting -CH2OH groups to the fibres' polymeric chains. The effect of reaction parameters including methacrylic acid concentration, benzoyl peroxide concentration, reaction time and temperature on grafting yield were studied. The extent of fibre modification was characterized with FT-IR spectroscopy, thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) and SEM. The ability of modified fibres to adsorb Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions from aqueous media was determined using atomic absorption spectroscopy. The results confirmed that the methacrylic acid grafted PET fibres could remove Cu2+ and Pb2+ ions from water efficiently. Also, the modified fibre was used for basic dye adsorption from water and showed a great capacity for removal of cationic dyes from aqueous media. 18 Refs.

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