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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: MATERIAL AND PROCESS RELATED INFLUENCES ON THE PARTICLE BASED INDUCTIVE HEATING OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE
Page Range: p.259-274
Author(s): Bayerl T; Mitschang P
File size: 1167K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.5

Abstract
Recently, a new inductive heating method to process fibre reinforced polymer composites was introduced. This method uses particulate susceptors which are affected by an electromagnetic field. The innovative heating method can be used to heat up bulk as well as sheet like materials because the generated thermal energy is distributed intrinsically in the component. Since the heating performance was observed to be closely related to the used susceptor material, other important factors influencing the heating and polymer melting were investigated in an experimental series. The study comprised materials-related parameters, such as filler fraction and particle size, as well as process-related ones, like induction current, coupling distance, and frequency. High density polyethylene (HDPE) doped with different susceptor materials, ferromagnetic as well as electrically conductive, was used for the heating experiments. The observed influence on the analysed heating performance of some materials and process parameters could be derived from standard physical laws, in particular the dependence on coil current and the coupling distance. Other process parameters, like the susceptor size and the frequency, were identified to have a more complex relationship on the heating ability. Cast iron particles, which showed the best heating performance in the study, were able to melt the applied HDPE within 90 seconds at a filler fraction of only 5 to 10 wt.%. For future applications of this heating method, a theoretical approach was revealed to deliver a sufficient approximation of the inductive particulate heating in a finite element model. 36 Refs.

Title: CHEMICAL AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES STUDIES OF CHINESE LINEN FLAX AND ITS COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.275-286
Author(s): Shanshan Huo; Ulven C A; Haoran Wang; Xinnan Wang
File size: 580K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.5

Abstract
To improve the mechanical performance of flax polymer composites, different surface modifications on flax fibres have been investigated by many researchers. In this study, the effects of alkaline treatment on the properties of Chinese linen flax were evaluated by different chemical and mechanical test techniques. Chemical detergents, stains and FTIR were used to investigate the chemical constituent changes in the Chinese linen flax. Moreover, the elastic properties of untreated and treated flax fibres were evaluated using a single fibre bundle tensile test. The elastic properties of their composites were accessed also using tensile tests. In addition, the theoretical elastic properties of alkaline treated flax were calculated using Halpin-Tsai equations. The theoretical elastic properties of flax/vinyl ester composites were also obtained to compare against the experimental results. An optimal/ultimate elastic modulus of flax/vinyl ester composites was predicted. 45 Refs.

Title: NON-WOVEN FLAX FIBRE REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE: STATIC AND LOW VELOCITY IMPACT BEHAVIOUR
Page Range: p.287-298
Author(s): Thuy Quynh Truong Hoang; Fabienne Touchard
File size: 947K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.5

Abstract
Non-woven flax fibre reinforced new and recycled polypropylene were manufacturing by an industrial process of carding, batt, needle-punching and thermo-pressing. Polypropylene fibres were mixed with flax fibres in the carding process forming a thick multi-layered mat which was used for thermo-compression process. Effects of multi-layered non-woven manufacturing on mechanical properties were analysed in different composites with three fibre areal weights. The results highlight the anisotropic behaviour of the obtained composites and a constant ratio of absorption energy to impact energy. In addition, cyclic tests and acoustic emission method coupled with image correlation measurement were specially employed in order to detect the damage development process in the composites and to qualify the deformation process in tensile test. 17 Refs.

Title: INTERFACIAL INTERACTION BETWEEN POLYCARBOXYLATE-BASED SUPERPLASTICIZER AND CEMENT COMPONENT MINERALS
Page Range: p.299-306
Author(s): Yinhui Yu; Jiaping Liu; Qianping Ran; Min Qiao; Nanxiao Gao
File size: 470K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.5

Abstract
This paper is presented for a better understanding of the interaction between polycarboxylate-based superplasticiser (PCA) and cement component minerals. The impact of PCA on the particle interaction among tricalcium silicate (C3S), dicalcium silicate (C2S) and the initial Portland cement hydrates ettringite (AFt) has been systematically examined. The zeta potential was highly dependent on the chemical composition of the solvent. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that adsorption always occurred between the minerals and anionic PCA in spite of their equal charge sign. For silicates (including C3S and C2S), the adsorption of high load Ca2+ formed a positive layer and subsequently adsorbed anionic PCA. For AFt, the direct adsorption onto AFt results from its strong electrostatic interaction. The high affinity of PCA to aluminate phase surface can be attributed to the high reactivity of tricalcium aluminate and its large specific surface. 16 Refs.

Title: THERMAL DEGRADATION AND FLAMMABILITY BEHAVIOUR OF HDPE/EVA/EG COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.307-314
Author(s): Zhidan Sun; Yonghong Ma; Yang Xu; Xiaolang Chen; Man Chen; Jie Yu; Shuchun Hu; Zhibin Zhang
File size: 295K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.5

Abstract
In this work, high density polyethylene (HDPE), ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) copolymer and expandable graphite (EG) flame retardant composites were prepared by using a twin screw extruder technique. The thermal stability and flame retardant properties of the composites were investigated by the thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and cone calorimeter, respectively. The char morphology after combustion was also further characterized. The experimental results indicated that intumescent EG greatly enhanced the thermal stability and fire resistance of polymer matrix materials. The presence of EG improved the degradation temperature of HDPE/EVA blend and increased its char residue at high temperature. The results from cone calorimeter demonstrated that the addition of EG led to the decrease of the heat release rate (HRR), total heat release (THR) and smoke production rate (SPR) of materials and could retard the emission of the toxic and flammability gases by promoting the formation of a compact char layer. This char layer will prevent the polymer matrix further degradation and protect it effectively from heat penetrating inside, resulting in lower weight loss rate and better flame retarded property. 36 Refs.

Title: RAPID CURING EPOXY RESIN AND ITS APPLICATION IN CARBON FIBRE COMPOSITE FABRICATED USING VARTM MOULDING
Page Range: p.315-316
Author(s): Wang C R; Gu Y Z; Zhang K M; Li M; Zhang Z G
File size: 527K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.5

Abstract
A rapid curing resin system made from the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A epoxy, modified imidazole and modified aliphatic amine was developed. The curing behaviour and following characteristic of the resin were evaluated by differential scanning calorimetric and rheological analysis, respectively. Carbon fibre-reinforced polymer composite (CFRP) laminates using this resin system were manufactured through vacuum-assisted resin transfer moulding (VARTM) under short-term curing schedule. Subsequently, studies were performed on the processing quality, mechanical properties and heat resistance of the composites. The effects of post-cure duration on the interfacial bonding and the properties of the composites were investigated. The results showed that the curing time of a CFRP laminate using the studied resin under 120 deg C could be controlled within 13 min with more than 95% curing degree and few defects. There were variations of the mechanical and thermal properties of the composites with different post-cure durations. The optimum properties were obtained after a post-cure process of 60 min, and extended post-cure treatment were detrimental. The corresponding mechanism was discussed from the viewpoint of interfacial bonding between carbon fibre and epoxy matrix. 23 Refs.

Title: HONEYCOMB PATTERNED SPS/TIO2 HYBRID FILMS DERIVED FROM BF TECHNIQUE AND GELATION
Page Range: p.325-332
Author(s): Qiusheng Song; Xiaofei Zhu; Yuanhao Xu
File size: 630K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.5

Abstract
Honeycomb patterned hybrid films were prepared from sulphonated polystyrene (SPS) and tetrabutyl titanate (TBT) by a combination of the 'breath figure' technique with a gelation process. The influences of solvents, concentration and the mass ratio of SPS/TBT in the hybrid sols on the morphology of the honeycomb films were investigated. The results from SEM, FTIR, DSC, TG and XRD showed that well-ordered films were formed when benzene was used as solvent, the mass ratios of SPS/TBT in the range of 10/1~1/2 and the concentration of SPS maintained in the range of 20-80 mg/mL. 22 Refs.

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