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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: FIBER BRAGG GRATING SENSORS FOR FATIGUE MONITORING OF COMPOSITE
Page Range: p.553-560
Author(s): Zhan-Sheng Guo; Jiemin Feng; Hui Wang; Hongjiu Hu; Junqian Zhang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Fibre Bragg grating (FBG) sensor can be used to monitor the mechanical behaviour of composite. The internal strain of composite during a constant stress amplitude fatigue testing process was monitored with FBG sensors in this paper. FBG sensor as a fatigue indicator can reveal the decrease of Young's modulus of the specimen, which is a direct index of damage. FBG sensor can not only be embedded in composite laminates to detect fatigue damage, but also has excellent durability compared with other sensors such as electric strain gauge. After 1 million cycles, the FBG sensor can still keep good sensibility. FBG sensor as a fatigue indicator is a novel sensor to monitor, evaluate and give crash alert for the health state of composite during its whole service life. And also, a new and simple model of stiffness degradation was developed. This model can be used to predict the fatigue life of composite material. 31 Refs.

Title: STUDY ON CURE-INDUCED RESIDUAL STRESSES FOR FIBRE METAL LAMINATE
Page Range: p.561-564
Author(s): Yue Guangquan; Zhang Jiazhen; Meng Songhe
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
During autoclave curing process, because of the mismatch between coefficients of thermal expansion of fibre layers and metal layers, residual stresses are developed in Fibre Metal Laminates (FML). In this paper, a three dimensional finite element model was developed to predict cure-induced residual stresses for FML. And then FML-2/1 and FML-3/2 structures (plate and L-shape) were studied with the finite element model. The results show that residual tensile stress is in metal layers and residual compressive stress is in fibre layers. Residual stresses in Fibre Metal Laminates are bigger enough to affect the deformation and fatigue performance. 11 Refs.

Title: THE PREPARATION OF PALYGORSKITE CLAY MODIFIED WOODCERAMICS FROM WHEAT STRAW AND THE ABSORPTION OF THEM TO THE PHENOL WASTEWATER
Page Range: p.565-572
Author(s): Wu W T; Nie Z F; Tan F I; Xu F; Xu L; Gao K I
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
This paper used wheat straw and palygorskite clay as raw materials, and phenolic resin as adhesive. By the technologies of powdering, mixing, solidifying, moulding and sintering, the palygorskite clay Modified woodceramics were obtained. And it made use of these porous composite materials to research the adsorption of the phenol wastewater, which explored the adsorption effect of the composite materials on phenol and found out the optimum conditions of adsorption by changing the ratio of raw materials, sintering temperature, dosage of composite materials, oscillating time and pH. The result of the palygorskite clay Modified woodceramics prepared by different dosing ration of raw materials and sintering temperatures on phenol showed that the removal effect of the composite materials (wheat straw: palygorskite clay=5:1, sintering temperature = 900 deg C) on phenol was best. Using the palygorskite clay modified woodceramics to adsorb the phenol wastewater. It turned out that when the dosage of the composite materials was 0.5 g, the Oscillating time was 60 mins, and the solution temperature was 25 deg C, the composite materials adsorption efficiency on phenol was the highest. In addition, the higher the phenol solution concentration and pH, the lower the adsorption efficiency was. What's more, the absorbability of the composite materials on phenol corresponded with Feundlich adsorption model, and the saturated adsorption was 45.66 mg/L, which indicated that the palygorskite clay Modified woodceramics had strong adsorption effect to phenol. 30 Refs.

Title: ANALYSIS OF MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON /EPOXY COMPOSITES IN THE NEAR CRITICAL WATER DECOMPOSITION
Page Range: p.573-580
Author(s): Xuegang Jia; Yuyan Liu; Lan Li
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Carbon fibre/epoxy resin composites have been widely used in many fields. However, they hardly melt at high temperatures or dissolve in any regular solvents. The recycling of carbon fibre/epoxy resin composites is one of the top research priorities. Carbon fibre/epoxy resin composite laminates consist of layers which are made of different materials. In near critical water, layers experience different forces, which result in the separation of layers and then accelerate the decomposition. In order to reach our final goal, decomposition of carbon fibre/ epoxy resin composite laminates in near critical water, the characteristics of stress and strain of carbon fibre/ epoxy resin laminates are necessary to know to guide the further study of decomposition. In this project, the stress and strain of carbon fibre/epoxy resin laminates in nearly critical water were analysed using the ANSYS software. The results showed that temperature and pressure affected stress and strain of laminates differently in X and Y directions. In addition, the increased number of layers of laminates will increase the interlaminar shear stress, peeling stress, and the strain in Y direction, but will decrease the strain in X direction. 19 Refs.

Title: FINITE ELEMENT ANALYSIS OF THE FATIGUE CRACK TIP PARAMETERS IN THE GLASS FIBER REINFORCED ALUMINUM ALLOY LAMINATES UNDER TENSION-COMPRESSION LOADING
Page Range: p.581-586
Author(s): Bai Shigang; Zhang Jiazhen; Sha Yu; Zhou Zhengong
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Elastic-plastic finite element analyses have been performed to study the compressive stress effect on fatigue crack growth of the glass fibre reinforced aluminium alloy laminates (GLARE) under applied tension-compression loading. The crack opening displacement and plastic zone size were obtained for the aluminium layer in GLARE. The differences of parameters near the crack tip under tension-compression and tension-tension loading were observed. The results have shown that the displacement and reverse plastic zone size continue to change with the applied compressive stress. Based on the finite element analysis results, a fatigue crack propagation model of GLARE has been proposed. 11 Refs.

Title: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS OF BIRD IMPACT ON A GLARE PLATE
Page Range: p.587-592
Author(s): Liu Fu; Zhang Jiazhen; Hu Zhongmin; Zhang Mingyi
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
GLARE is a 'Glass Fibre Reinforced Epoxy/Aluminium FMLs (Fibre Metal Laminates)' and has been reported for its excellent impact resistance. In this paper, a numerical model for bird impact on an aluminium alloy plate was established, using the explicit finite element code PAM-CRASH first. A corresponding bird impact experiment was carried out and the simulations were compared with the experimental results. The good agreement between them confirms the accuracy of the numerical analysis model, including the Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH) bird model and the aluminium alloy constitutive model. In the second part of the paper,, another simulation on a thinner 2024-T3 aluminium alloy plate was performed, which was used to determine the critical bird impact speed for the plate. By combining the Johnson-Cook model for aluminium alloy and Continuum Damage Mechanics (CDM) theory for the glass fibre reinforced composites, a constitutive model for GLARE was derived. Impact simulations on the GLARE plate with the same thickness and impact speed as the 2024-T3 plate shows no penetration on the GLARE plate and indicates that GLARE can effectively improve the impact resistance of a structure. 10 Refs.

Title: COMPRESSION BUCKLING RESPONSE OF TOW-PLACED, VARIABLE STIFFNESS COMPOSITE PANELS WITH SINE CURVED AND TANGENT CURVED FIBERS
Page Range: p.593-598
Author(s): Qin Yongli; Zhu Yingdan; Yu Yueping; Yan Chun; Zhang Xiaoqing; Fan Xinyu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Tailoring of composite laminated panels by Variable Angle Tow (VAT) steering fibres in their optimal spatial orientations provides a unique opportunity to maximize performance. Increased buckling response of the laminates by VAT steering technique may directly provide significant weight savings by redistributing loads in a benign manner. The aim of this work is to design tow-placed, variable stiffness composite panels with resistance to buckling by steering sine curved and tangent curved fibres. Buckling behaviours of two types of VAT panels and three typical types of straight fibre panels ([45/-45/0/90]s,[ plus/minus 45]2s, [0/90]2s) are investigated by finite element numerical simulations. It is found that the VAT panels with sine curved and tangent curved fibres show much better buckling performance to traditional straight fibre panels, with 9.25%-30.75% and 8.18%-29.47% improvement in buckling load respectively and a more uniform stress distribution. These results demonstrate that the design of composite laminated panels with sine curved and tangent curved fibre formats has the potential for buckling performance improvements in structural efficiency, and sine curved fibres may enhance buckling property of composite laminates better than tangent curved fibres do. 16 Refs.

Title: TENSILE BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID PLAIN WOVEN FABRIC LAMINATE REPAIRED BY SCARFING METHOD
Page Range: p.599-606
Author(s): Liu Sui; Guan Zhidong; Guo Xia; Chen Jianhua; Xi Guofen; Cai Jing
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Experimental investigation on tensile behaviour of hybrid plain woven fabric laminate repaired by scarfing method was conducted in the paper. There were 3 types of specimens with scarf ratio of 1:10, 1:20 and 1:30, respectively. Tests results indicated the tensile strength of repaired laminate increasing with scarf ratio and the specimen with the scarf ratio of 1:30 has the highest tensile strength which could reach 103.2% of the intact laminate strength. Besides, distinct differences were observed on failure mode of specimens with different scarf ratio. For specimen with scarf ratio of 1:10, damage initiated and propagated in repair zone while failure occurred outside repair zone for 1:30 specimen. A finite element model was developed with ABAQUS to simulate tensile behaviour of repaired specimens. The calculated results were in good agreement with test results. Based on the numerical model, influence of scarf ratio to stress distribution in adhesive, ultimate tensile strength and failure mode of repaired laminate was discussed. Results of the investigation provide insight into scarfing repair design method on hybrid plain woven fabric laminate. 21 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF SURFACE PROPERTIES OF T800 CARBON FIBERS ON EPOXY /FIBER INTERFACE ADHESION
Page Range: p.607-612
Author(s): Li-li Wang; Peng Li; Ling-cong Li; Yun-hua Yu; Xiao-ping Yang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The purpose of this paper is to study the effect of surface properties of domestic sized-T800 carbon fibres on the epoxy/fibre interfacial adhesion by comparing with Toray sized-T800 carbon fibres. Surface chemistry analysis of the fibres was carried out by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The surface roughness of the carbon fibres was characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and atomic force microscope (AFM). Dynamic contact angle analysis (DCAA) was selected to characterize the surface energy of the two types of carbon fibres. The interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) test, SEM and Dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) were used to study the interface adhesion of the two carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites. The results show that Toray sized-T800 carbon fibre/epoxy composite has higher interlaminar shear strength than domestic sized-T800/epoxy composite because Toray sized-T800 carbon fibres have more active and rougher surface than the domestic sized-T800 carbon fibres. 29 Refs.

Title: DYNAMIC ANALYSIS ON COMPOSITE LAMINATES SUBJECTED TO LOW-VELOCITY IMPACT DAMAGE
Page Range: p.613-618
Author(s): Peng Qu; Xiaojun Guan; Jiaqi Nie; Guowei Zhu; Yuxi Jia
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 21
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The hierarchical and heterogeneous structure characteristics of composite laminates give rise to the difficulty in the study of the composite laminates damage under low-velocity impact. A numerical method for the evaluation of the impact damage was proposed on the basis of the continuum damage mechanics (CDM) and the cohesive zone model (CZM). The method can bring stable simulations and can effectively establish the relation between the mesoscale structure and the macroscopic response under impact. The evolution of the impact damage and the effect of single ply orientation on the impact damage resistance were investigated. It is found that the tangential delamination is the dominant form of the interface damage and more orientation of fibre can make the impact resistance improved. The prediction has a good agreement with the experimental results. The dynamic analysis is helpful for a thorough understanding of the evolution of low-velocity impact damages in composite laminates. 12 Refs.

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