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Title: CURING KINETICS AND THERMAL PROPERTIES OF AROMATIC MULTIFUNCTIONAL EPOXY RESINS
Page Range: p.1-12
Author(s): Mingming Yu; Zhengwei Zhou; Hang Lu; Aijun Li; Ruicheng Bai; Jinliang Sun; Musu Ren; Hefeng Hu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In order to investigate the relationship between the chemical structure of multifunctional epoxy resins and their properties, two tetrafunctional epoxies with different aromatic rings content in the molecular main chain, N,N,N',N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (4,4'-TGDDE) and N,N,N',N'-tetraglycidyl-2,2-bis[4(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]propane (TGBAPP), were cured with 4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (4,4'-DDE) and 2,2-bis[4-(4-aminophenoxy)phenyl]propane (BAPP), respectively. Then four amine curing systems (TGBAPP/ BAPP, TGBAPP/4,4'-DDE, 4,4'-TGDDE/BAPP and 4,4'-TGDDE/4,4'-DDE) were obtained. Additionally, the 4,4'-TGDDE and another TGDDE with m-glycidyl amino, named N,N,N',N'-tetraglycidyl-4,4'-diaminodiphenyl ether (3,4'-TGDDE) were cured with methyl nadic anhydride (MNA). Then the anhydride curing systems (4,4'-TGDDE/MNA and 3,4'-TGDDE/MNA) were prepared. The curing kinetics and thermal properties of these systems were studied in detail. The results indicated that the anhydride curing systems exhibited higher curing reactivity than the amine curing systems, and the resins cured with the anhydride showed better thermal properties. Moreover, introducing more aromatic rings into the backbone would decrease the curing reactivity but enhance the thermal property of the multifunctional epoxy resins. And the tetrafunctional epoxy with p-glycidy amino groups had higher curing reactivity than the epoxy with p-glycidy amino groups, and the thermal property of the front epoxy was better. 28 Refs.

Title: FROM AMINOLYSIS PRODUCT OF PET WASTE TO VALUE-ADDED PRODUCTS OF POLYMER AND ASSISTANTS
Page Range: p.13-16
Author(s): Ling-na Zhang; Li-zhu Liu; Qun-feng Yue; Chun-cheng Zhu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this work, the aminolysis depolymerisat of poly(ethylene terephthalate) PET was carried out with ethanolamine and several acetates as catalysts. The main product, bis(2-hydroxyethyl) terephthalamide (BHETA), was identified from FTIR and 1H NMR. It was found that PET depolymerisat is favoured by increasing temperature, time and catalysts. Results shown that under present conditions of aminolysis, the conversion of PET was 100% and high yield of BHETA. Moreover, aminolysis products have the potential to undergo further reactions to yield secondary value-added product, such as unsaturated polyesters, polyurethanes, epoxy resin hardeners and non-ionic polymer surfactants. 9 Refs.

Title: PIPE STIFFNESS PREDICTION OF BURIED GFRP FLEXIBLE PIPE
Page Range: p.17-24
Author(s): Joon-Seok Park; Won-Hee Hong; Wan Lee; Jung-Hwan Park; Soon-Jong Yoon
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this paper, we present the result of investigations pertaining to the pipe stiffness (PS) of glass fibre reinforced polymer plastic (GFRP) flexible pipes buried underground. PS formula for the parallel plate loading condition is derived based on the elasticity theory. Vertical and horizontal displacements are also derived. In the study, the mechanical properties and structural behaviour of GFRP flexible pipes are investigated experimentally and the results are used in the analysis and design of these flexible pipes. Pipe stiffness of GFRP flexible pipe is investigated by the parallel plate loading test, the finite element analysis, and theoretical analysis. The results of pipe stiffness of the GFRP flexible pipe obtained by the experiment, theory, and the finite element analysis are compared and close agreements are observed. 13 Refs.

Title: NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF THE MODE I FRACTURE OF ANGLE-PLY COMPOSITES USING THE EXPONENTIAL COHESIVE ZONE MODEL
Page Range: p.25-30
Author(s): Guowei Zhu; Peng Qu; Jiaqi Nie; Yunli Guo; Yuxi Jia
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
The cohesive zone model (CZM), which is based on the elasto-plastic fracture mechanics, is nowadays widely used in the numerical simulation of the composites ductile crack and progressive delamination. For the sake of tracking the angle-ply composites delamination evolution accurately, the exponential CZM is applied. At first the standard double cantilever beam (DCB) specimen is modelled using the exponential interface damage law to verify the feasibility of it. The simulated results are in good agreement with the analytical results and corrected beam theory. Then in order to investigate how the ply angle influences the mode I fracture, five laminates with different ply orientations, [012/012], [012/3012], [012/4512], [012/6012] and [012/9012], are studied. The main results are obtained as follows. The delamination evolutions corresponding to different ply angles are quite non-uniform. The unidirectional laminate exhibits the stable, continuous crack growth along the specimen, so does the [012/9012] specimen. Whereas the other three specimens show very uneven fracture surfaces. When the plies change from [012/012] to [012/9012], the stiffness along the specimen is gradually reduced correspondingly, so are the distance of the delamination propagation and the peak load, while the corresponding loading displacement increases slowly. The research provides the numerical simulation method to evaluate the multidirectional laminated composites fracture toughness, and then to optimize the composite performance by the design of ply angles. 15 Refs.

Title: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND FRACTURE BEHAVIOR OF DUAL-CURABLE EPOXYACRYLATE COMPOSITES FILLED WITH DIFFERENT FUNCTIONALIZED SILICA PARTICLES
Page Range: p.31-38
Author(s): Yu-Chieh Su; Chung-Yih Wang; Trong-Ming Don
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
To investigate the interfacial effect on properties of epoxyacrylate-silica composites, sub-micron silica particles were synthesised by sol-gel reaction in an ammonia/ethanol solution and their surfaces were endowed with different functional groups by reaction with several silanes including 3-methacryloxypropyl trimethoxysilane (MPTMS), vinyl trimethoxysilane (VTMS), 3-glycidoxypropyl trimethoxysilane (GPTMS) and 3-aminopropyl trimethoxysilane (APTMS). Except the APTMS-modified silica particles due to its severe aggregation, the modified silica particles with size ranging from 150~250 nm were then added to the pre-synthesized difunctional epoxyacrylate resin at a concentration of 15 phr, in addition to the photo- and thermo-curing agents. Tensile mechanical properties and the fracture toughness were all increased by adding the silica particles into the epoxyacrylate. Particularly, the composite filled with the MPTMS-modified silica particles (EA-MPS15) had the best performance. The reason is that the vinyl double bond of the MPTMS on the surface of the silica particles could took part in the curing reaction of the epoxyacrylate, thus providing strong interfacial chemical bonding between the silica particles and the polymer matrix and also improving the dispersion of the silica particles. The increase of fracture toughness was due to the crack deflection and particle-matrix debonding as evidenced by SEM pictures on the fracture surface. 13 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF SILICA/POLYMER ANTIFOGGING COATINGS
Page Range: p.39-44
Author(s): Chao-Chin Chang; Kuan-Chung Wang; Ching-Chung Chen; Liao-Ping Cheng
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
This research work concerns the preparation of a bi-layer antifogging (AF) coating on a polycarbonate plastic substrate. The bottom layer, serving as a mechanical support, is an organic-inorganic composite that is formed by embedding colloidal silica in a crosslinked network of b-glycidoxypropyltrimethoxysiline. Atop this layer, a coating formulation incorporating glycidyl methacrylate and poly(ethylene oxide)-based hydrophilic species was applied and then UV-cured to yield a film exhibiting the AF effect. Solid-state 29Si-NMR and FTIR were employed to investigate the evolution of chemical bonds during the sol-gel and the UV-curing processes. Contact angles of water on the coatings were measured to examine the hydrophilicity of the coatings. Furthermore, industrial tests such as pencil hardness, tape adhesion, and steam tests were carried out to evaluate the performance of the coatings. 21 Refs.

Title: THERMAL ANALYSIS OF A NOVEL TETRAFUNCTIONAL EPOXY RESIN CURED WITH ANHYDRIDE
Page Range: p.45-50
Author(s): Zhou Z W; Yu M M; Bai R C; Li A J; Sun J L; Ren M S
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
The viscoelastic behaviour and thermal property of 3, 3'-diethyl-N, N, N', N'-tetraglycidyl-4, 4'-diaminodiphenylmethane (C2H5-TGDDM ) epoxy resin in presence of methyl nadic anhydride (MNA) as curing agent and 2-ethyl-4-methyl imidazole (2,4-EMI) as accelerator were investigated by dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA) in single cantilever mode at different frequencies and non-isothermal DSC-TGA, respectively. According to the DMTA data, the results show that the storage and loss moduli and loss factor curves were shifted to higher temperatures region with increasing frequencies. The value of glass transition temperature (Tg) is in the range of 224 deg C to 247 deg C, and the difference between the Tg determined by the loss modulus and loss factor peaks is ca. 15 deg C, and the glass transition activation energy was calculated. The results of DSC-TGA show that the curing and the decomposition heat-release peaks of epoxy resin were occurred at ca. 191 deg C and 360 deg C, respectively. The onset temperature of degradation is 324 deg C, and the epoxy resin system was heat-resistant. 16 Refs.

Title: RATCHETING BEHAVIORS OF THE CARBON FIBER REINFORCED PEEK COMPOSITES: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY AND NUMERICAL SIMULATION
Page Range: p.51-58
Author(s): Zhiwu Zhu; Xu Liu; Xiangyu Li
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this study, uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the polyether ether ketone (PEEK) resins and the carbon fibre/polyether ether ketone (CF/PEEK) composites. The ratcheting behaviours of the CF/PEEK composites under stress-controlled cyclic loading were studied by using a combined experimental and finite element approach, with a particular emphasis on the effects of mean stress and stress amplitude. Based on the constitutive relation parameters obtained from the uniaxial tensile tests, the representative volume element model of the CF/PEEK composite was established by using ABAQUS and the random sequence of adsorption (RSA) algorithm. The experimental and numerical simulation results were compared under the same loading conditions. It was showed that a noticeable ratcheting occurred in the composites under the asymmetric stress-controlled cyclic loading and was positively related to the stress amplitude and mean stress. A good agreement between the experimental and simulation results was achieved in this study. Therefore, the finite element simulation is a useful method to predict the ratcheting strains of the CF/PEEK composites under different conditions. 16 Refs.

Title: DAMAGE EFFECTS OF CHARGED PARTICLES IRRADIATION ON AN EPOXY RESIN
Page Range: p.59-64
Author(s): Yu Gao; Shangli Dong; Jianwen Bao; Yang Guo; Shaowei Lu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this study, the mass loss effect and the related outgassing of 5224 epoxy resin have been investigated. Subsequent irradiation of 160 keV proton and electron with the fluences ranging from 5.4x1015 to 3.75x1016 cm-2 in vacuum (1.2x10-5 Pa) was performed. The increase of the fluence of proton or electron made the mass loss ratios increase, then level off. The surface roughness of specimens increased followed by augmenting as the function of fluence. The outgassing rate of most molecule ions reached to maximum under the fluences ranging from 5.4x1015 cm-2 to 1.18x1016 cm-2. With further increasing fluence, the outgassing rate decreased owing to the effects of carbon enrichment or even carbonification developed gradually on the surface layer of the irradiated specimens. It is suggested that two events might play vital roles in dominating the magnitude of the outgassing rates: one is the formation of molecule ions; the other is the enrichment of carbon on the surface layer. 12 Refs.

Title: EVALUATION OF PP/CLAY COMPOSITES AS SOUNDPROOFING MATERIAL
Page Range: p.65-72
Author(s): Jun Yan; Myung-Sub Kim; Kyung-Min Kang; Kyung-Hoon Joo; Yeon-June Kang; Sung-Hoon Ahn
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Noise should be disappeared or reduced by using soundproofing materials in our daily life. Polypropylene (PP)/ Clay composites are interesting because of their physical and mechanical properties dramatically increased by small quantity of clay filled in PP matrix. In this paper, different types of specimens were made at 0.9, 2.9, 4.8, 6.5, 8.2 and 9.9 wt.% of organically modified clay reinforced PP (100 gram) by solvent based techniques. A heating press and laser cutting process were used to create specimens with thickness 3 mm, diameter 29 mm and 100 mm for high and low sound frequency test, respectively. The soundproofing property was measured by sound transmission loss (TL) through impedance tube method. The measured results showed that about 7~14.8 dB sound TL was increased for 29 mm diameter PP/Clay (6.5 wt.%) composite specimens compared with pure PP at 3200~6400Hz. And about 3.3~5.3 dB sound TL was increased for 100 mm diameter PP/Clay (6.5 wt.%) composite specimens compared with pure PP at 520~640Hz. In addition, mechanical properties of this composite were measured, and TEM images were taken in order to observe the micro-structure for research on relationship between soundproofing property and micromechanism. 24 Refs.

Title: DEVELOPMENT OF A FINITE ELEMENT MODEL FOR PROGRESSIVE DAMAGE ANALYSIS OF COMPOSITE LAMINATES SUBJECTED TO LOW VELOCITY IMPACT
Page Range: p.73-78
Author(s): Yuequan Wang; Shuhua Zhu; Junwei Qi; Jun Xiao
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Fibre reinforced polymer laminates are susceptible to transverse low velocity impact which can cause significant damages, such as matrix cracks, delamination and fibre breakage. A 3-Dimensional (3-D) finite element model (FEM) is presented for the progressive damage analysis of fibre reinforced laminates subjected to low velocity impact. The constitutive equations of material used in the FEM are based on the continuum damage mechanics (CDM). The modified HASHIN failure criterions are used in the material model to detect the initiation of all the failure modes of laminates. A simplified material stiffness degradation scheme is used to characterize the material degradation due to damages. The failure criterions and material degradation scheme have been incorporated in the software ABAQUS/Explicit through the user defined material subroutine VUMAT. The available experiments of thin carbon fibre reinforced epoxy laminates subjected to low velocity impact were used to validate the developed FEM. The good agreement of the impact contact force history and damage area between the analysis results and the experimental data shows the validation of the developed FEM. 14 Refs.

Title: INVESTIGATION OF THE INTERFACE PARAMETERS OF FIBER-REINFORCED COMPOSITE MATERIALS
Page Range: p.79-84
Author(s): Zhimin Xie; Dongliang Chai; Yanyan Weng; Haiwen Du
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Design of the interfacial properties is a significant fundamental issue in the field of composite materials. Much attention has been paid to the improvement of the interface strength, while there has been a little work concerning the mechanical design of the interface for fibre-reinforced polymers (FRPs) in which the fibre is transversely isotropic thanks to its orientation feature. Based on the conception of neutral inclusion and imperfect interface conditions, the interface parameters are obtained for the FRPs by using Kolosov constant. We demonstrate the effect of the thermal residual stresses on the neutrality for FRPs in this paper. If the interface has the properties of design parameters without consideration of thermal stress, the presence of thermal residual stress/strain would break the neutrality in the cases of equal-biaxial tension and pure shear. In particular, the neutral fibre does not exist unless the thermal stress is eliminated in the equal-biaxial tension. In the case of uniaxial tension, the neutral fibre does not exist in absence of thermal stress, while the neutrality would become possible by properly controlling the thermal residual stress. Because the large thermal residual stress will result in the formation of cracks in matrix, a trade-off design is necessary between the neutrality and the initiation of matrix cracking. 14 Refs.

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