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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: MODELING OF COUPLED TEMPERATURE-DISPLACEMENT-DIFFUSION PROBLEM FOR SILICA-PHENOLIC COMPOSITE UNDER HIGH TEMPERATURE
Page Range: p.85-90
Author(s): Shengbo Shi; Jun Liang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Volume ablation process of resin-matrix thermoprotective composite is, generally, associated with complex physico-chemical changes, heat and mass transfer processes and irreversible changes of thermomechanical and thermophysical properties. The thermomechanical behaviour of resin-matrix thermoprotective material during volume ablation can be analysed as the coupled temperature-displacement- diffusion problem of porous elastomers under high temperature. Based on the ablative and thermoprotective mechanisms of silica-phenolic composite, the governing equations of the porous elastomers, such as equation of motion of solid phase, gas diffusion equation and energy conservation equation, were established. These governing equations were further modified using finite element method to obtain the element stiffness equation for each element. Additionally, the global stiffness equations were assembled and solved by Gaussian elimination method. The temperature distribution, pore pressure, strain and stress field in plane strain state were calculated when silica-phenolic composite was exposed to a constant radiant heat flux. 17 Refs.

Title: ATOMISTIC STRUCTURE AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF SILOXANE PYROLYZED AMORPHOUS SILICON OXYCARBIDE
Page Range: p.91-98
Author(s): Xiaoguang Luo; Bangcheng Ai; Jijun Yu; Wenbo Miao
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Atomistic models of amorphous silicon oxycarbide, a-SiCO with different compositional range between SiO2 and SiC are constructed by rapid quenching. Structural models consisting of 528-568 atoms are fully optimized by molecular mechanics based on ReaxFF force fields. The addition of carbon into SiO2 glass stiffens the network and increases the bulk modulus. For better understanding the thermodynamics properties of a-SiCO, the effect of pressure and temperature on the bulk modulus, heat capacity, Debye temperature and coefficient of thermal expansion are derived by the quasi-harmonic Debye model in virtue of standard thermodynamic relations. 20 Refs.

Title: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON THE BEHAVIOR OF A NEW MULTILAYER SHIELD AGAINST HYPERVELOCITY DEBRIS IMPACT
Page Range: p.99-104
Author(s): Miao Changqing; Liu Bo
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
To protect the spacecraft from hypervelocity impact of the space debris, a new kind of multilayer shield laminated of aluminium layers and CFRP layers was designed and investigated. Three different shields with the same area density were manufactured, including single aluminium alloy layer, single CFRP layer, and multilayer of aluminium/CFRP. The hypervelocity impact experiment was carried, in which the hypervelocity projectile was launched by a two-stage light gas gun. To compare the hypervelocity impact behaviour and evaluate the protection ability of the different shields, the area and depth of the projectile pits were analysed. The experiments results show that the protection effect of the multilayer shield laminated of aluminium/CFRP layers is better than the single aluminium layer or the single CFRP layer, though they are in the same area density. 10 Refs.

Title: CHARACTERIZATION OF STRENGTH OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITE BASED ON MICROMECHANICS
Page Range: p.105-116
Author(s): Wangnan Li; Hongneng Cai; Jie Zheng
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Micro-mechanics of failure (MMF) is a micromechanics-based failure criterion for composites, which can be applied to characterize the composite strength accurately and reliably. The strength and mechanical properties of unidirectional laminate are measured by the static tensile loading and compressive loading tests as well as three points bending test. The micromechanics model is proposed to amplify the detailed mechanical and residual thermal stresses for the key points in the fibres and matrix. The critical MMF parameters are characterized by using the stress amplification factors and the measured strengths of unidirectional laminate. The carbon fibres reinforced plastic UTS50/E51 is used to demonstrate the application of MMF theory. The failure envelopes are constructed and compared on the basis of the MMF theory and Tsai-Wu failure theory. The failure mechanism and static tensile strength of quasi-isotropic laminate of polymer composites is studied based on MMF. The UTS50/E51 CFRP is used to demonstrate the application of theory of MMF. 14 Refs.

Title: THE EFFECTS OF PARTICLE SIZE ON THE MORPHOLOGY AND PROPERTIES OF POLYIMIDE/NANO-AL2O3 COMPOSITE FILMS
Page Range: p.117-122
Author(s): Lizhu Liu; Hui Shi; Ling Weng; Jun Ding; Weiwei Cui
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Polyimide/nano-sized Al2O3 composite films based on pyromellitic dianhydride(PMDA) and 4,4'-oxydianiline(ODA) were synthesised by incorporation with different particle sizes of nano-Al2O3 via in situ polymerisation. The morphology and structure of composite films were studied by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM). The properties including the tensile strength, corona resistance, electric breakdown strength and dielectric properties were investigated. Results indicated that the size of Al2O3 nano-particles had a great effect on the microstructures of composite films. The smaller size of the Al2O3 particles, the more regularity of composite films were obtained. Properties testing results indicated that by increasing the Al2O3 particles' dimension would decrease the mechanical properties and electric breakdown strength of composite films, while the dielectric constant remain nearly stable. Results also showed that after Al2O3 addition, the corona resistance of composite films was improved, compared with that of pure PI films. The longest corona resistance time was obtained when the smallest Al2O3 particles was used, which had a three times longer than PI composite film with largest Al2O3 addition. 17 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION, MORPHOLOGY AND DIELECTRIC PROPERTIES OF NANO-TIC/POLYIMIDE COMPOSITE FILMS
Page Range: p.123-128
Author(s): Weng Ling; Qianshan Xia; Liwen Yan; Cheng Wang; Maochang Cao; Lizhu Liu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
A series of nano-titanium carbide doped polyimide (nano-TiC/PI) composite films were successfully prepared via in situ polymerisation. The microstructure of the obtained composite films was characterized by the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The effects of different TiC contents on the mechanical and thermal properties of composite films were investigated. Dielectric properties of the nano-TiC/PI composite films were analysed in detail with respect to different experimental parameters including frequency and filler concentration. Results indicated that the TiC particles dispersed homogeneously in PI matrix when its' content was below 15 vol.%. The addition of TiC particles could effectively improved the thermal stability of composite films. In comparison with pure polyimide film, the dielectric constant of the composite films with 5 vol.% TiC was significantly increased by thirteen times while the loss tangent only increased a little. Moreover, the composite films exhibited good dielectric stability over a wide range of frequency. The development of these novel polyimide composite films with favourable dielectric properties are potential for embedded capacitor applications. 17 Refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF LIQUID NITROGEN STEEPING ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF A UNIDIRECTIONAL CARBON FIBER REINFORCED BISMALEIMIDE COMPOSITE
Page Range: p.129-134
Author(s): Shaoquan Wang; Shangli Dong; Yu Gao; Zhuyu Ye; Gang Lu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
The influence of cryogenic environment on mechanical properties of a unidirectional carbon fibre reinforced bismaleimide composite (T700/6421BMI composite) has been investigated in this study. Cryogenic treatment was performed by steeping the T700/6421BMI composite specimens in liquid nitrogen for 0, 24, 240, 480, 1200, 1920 and 2400 hours, respectively. After liquid nitrogen steeping treatment, the transverse tension test, three-point bending test, short beam shear test and impact test were carried out to evaluate the effect of steeping time on mechanical properties of the T700/6421BMI composite. The fracture surface morphology of typical specimens was examined by SEM while the chemical variation and interface damage of the composite were characterized by FTIR and DMA. The results indicate that mechanical properties of the T700/6421BMI composite are affected by liquid nitrogen steeping. The bending strength displays a tendency of decreasing firstly then rising with increase in steeping time, and the shear strength exhibits on the contrary. The total impact energy and crack propagation energy of the T700/6421BMI composite increases rapidly in the initial stage and increases slightly as increases LN2 steeping time. It is suggested that the mechanical properties of the T700/6421BMI composite after liquid nitrogen steeping might be dominated by interface state related to steeping time. With the increase in steeping time, the stress concentration in the surface of matrix and fibre induced by coefficient of thermal expansion (CTE) difference increases and might cause interface debonding. 9 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF CRYOGENIC CYCLES ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIOR OF GLASS/EPOXY COMPOSITE
Page Range: p.135-140
Author(s): Jiemin Feng; Hui Wang; Zhansheng Guo; Hongjiu Hu; Junqian Zhang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Cryogenic cycling effects on the behaviour of two layer-up glass/epoxy laminates were studied. One cycle of cryogenic cycling test was designated as the sequence from 65 deg C to -196 deg C and the tests were conducted up to 80 cycles. Dynamic mechanic analysis tests were carried out to investigate the relationship between storage modulus (E'), loss modulus (E') or damping factor (tan m) and cycling numbers. It was found that the storage modulus changed little and the damping factor increased with the number of cryogenic cycles increased. Creep recovery tests were also preformed in single-cantilever mode by DMA to inspect the effect of cryogenic cycles on the creep behaviour of glass/epoxy composites. The variation of the reduced creep compliance was observed considered with the number of cycles. 29 Refs.

Title: HYDROGEN ADSORPTION ON CA-DECORATED EPOXY-COATING GRAPHENE
Page Range: p.141-146
Author(s): Wenbo Liu; Yang Liu; Lifeng Hao; Zhonghai Xu; Fan Yang; Zhenqiang Zhu; Rongguo Wang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
The hydrogen adsorption of calcium-decorated epoxy-doped graphene has been studied by density functional theory calculations. Several models are set up and the optimized geometries are obtained. The interaction among epoxy functional groups, graphene and metal atoms is studied by analysing the electronic and band structures of the relaxed models. Mulliken population and the partial density of states are calculated to probe the nature of hydrogen molecules adsorption on this system. Our results demonstrate that this kind of stable material can be used as a promising hydrogen storage material. 36 Refs.

Title: NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF BIRD IMPACT ON FIBRE METAL LAMINATES
Page Range: p.147-156
Author(s): Shuhua Zhu; Yuequan Wang; Mingbo Tong; Xiong Pan
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
A finite element model of bird impact on the Fibre Metal Laminates (FMLs) was established with the smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) and finite element method in the software PAM-CRASH. The bird was modelled with the SPH elements in order to avoid the bird mesh distortion. It studied the sensitivities of some important parameters to the dynamic response of bird strike on FMLs, which included the configuration of the FMLs, the orientation of the composite layup, and the type and thickness of the metal. The results of the simulation show that the bird strike ability of the configuration (2/1) is better than the configuration (3/2). The bird strike ability of FMLs with the composite layup [45 deg /-45 deg] is better than the composite layup [0 deg /90 deg ]. FMLs with aluminium alloy 2024T3 and metal thickness 0.4mm is the best for the anti-bird strike. Lastly, the bird strike simulation was carried out for the wing leading edge structures with three different skins, aluminium alloy skin and two FMLs skins. The analysis results show that the bird strike ability of the wing leading edge structures with FMLs skin is greatly improved. 11 Refs.

Title: MECHANICAL PARAMETERS DETERMINATION OF A POLYMERIC MEMBRANE BY DIGITAL IMAGE CORRELATION
Page Range: p.157-162
Author(s): Lin Guochang; Tan Huifeng; Bai Xianghong
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Digital image correlation (DIC) is a powerful method for full-field strain test of polymeric materials and speckle pattern on the material's surface is a critical factor for the measurement accuracy. In this paper, a new speckle pattern technique is presented and used on mechanical parameter determination of a thin and soft polymeric membrane. The presented speckle pattern is generated by combination of image noise technology and film printing technique, and it is much easier to get fine speckle pattern compared with traditional spray speckle pattern technique which is a hard and time-cost work. To verify the validity of the presented speckle pattern technique, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are measured by presented speckle pattern and spray speckle pattern on a tensile testing machine. It is found that the measurement results by presented speckle pattern agree well with that by fine spray speckle pattern. With the presented speckle pattern technique, DIC becomes a more convenient and fast non-contact measurement technology for polymeric materials test. 19 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ELASTOMERIC ETHYLENE TERPOLYMER REINFORCED POLY(ETHYLENE-CO-ISOSORBIDE TEREPHTHALATE)/MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBE COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.163-168
Author(s): Park J S; Kim S B; Kim H R; Nam B U
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Poly(ethylene-co-isosorbide terephthalate)(PEIT)/ multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT) /ethylene terpolymer composites were prepared by a melt mixing process. The effects of MWCNT and the ethylene terpolymer of nanocomposites on the mechanical, thermal and electrical properties were investigated. MWCNT and ethylene terpolymer from 1 to 5 phr and 5 wt.% and 10 wt.% were added to the PEIT matrix, respectively. The thermal properties were evaluated by DSC and TGA. The morphology, mechanical properties and electrical characteristics were assessed by FE-SEM, a notched Izod impact strength tester and a surface resistance meter. As a result, we found that the PEIT/MWCNT/ethylene terpolymer composites have higher conductivity and better mechanical properties than neat PEIT resin. 25 Refs.

Title: DYNAMIC COMPRESSIVE BEHAVIORS OF MULTI DIRECTIONAL WOVEN COMPOSITE LAMINATES AT DIFFERENT STRAIN RATES
Page Range: p.169-176
Author(s): Na Wang; Chongdu Cho
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
This paper discusses the experimental study on the response of multi directional satin weave E-glass/epoxy composite laminates subjected to quasi-static and high strain rate compression loading along in-plane direction. Composite laminates were fabricated from satin weave glass fabric reinforced epoxy matrix pre-impregnated tapes which were manually laid up into laminates with stacking sequence of [45/-45/0/90]13s. The low strain rate tests were conducted with an INSTRONTM testing machine, and the high strain rate tests done using a pulse shaper modified compression Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar (SHPB) apparatus. Compressive strength, modulus and strain at peak stress are evaluated experimentally at different strain rates. The results show that compressive strength, modulus and strain at peak stress are rate sensitive and enhanced at high strain rate compared with those at quasi-static loading. Under high strain rate loading, compressive strength and modulus increase as the strain rate increases. Optical and microscopic graphs on the specimens are carefully examined to determine operative failure modes. With the studied strain rate regimes, the failure modes are observed to change from splitting followed by fibre kink buckling to predominantly delamination and shear fracture as the strain rate increases from quasi-static to high strain rate. 26 Refs.

Title: THE EFFECT OF CRACK RESISTANCE LAYER ON BALLISTIC PERFORMANCE OF LAMINATED COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.177-180
Author(s): Zhenqiang Zhu; Rongguo Wang; Fan Yang; Lifeng Hao; Weicheng Jiao; Yang Liu; Jianguang Zhang; Yanling Xu; Wenbo Liu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Crack resistance layer, a layer of aramid stuck on the surface of ceramics, can effectively prevent the splashing of fragment of a bullet under attack. It bounds the fragment within the structure and the friction between bullet and ceramics arouses tremendous energy consumption. Here, we compare the impact tests with and without crack resistance layer to investigate the effect of crack resistance layer. By analysing the friction between bullet and ceramic, the friction mass, and energy absorption, we study the nature of crack resistance layer protection behaviour. As the surface density of this structure increases 1%, the impact resistance and energy absorption efficiency are substantially enhanced. 28 Refs.

Title: ENGINEERING METHOD FOR THE THERMAL MECHANICAL EROSION OF C/C COMPOSITE WITH THE MESOSCALE ABLATION MODEL
Page Range: p.181-186
Author(s): Deng Daiying; Yu Jijun; Yan Xiangqiao; Huang Fei; LuoXiaoguang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
A physical model to simulate the mesoscale morphology evolution of carbon fibre is established to characterize the thermal mechanical erosion behaviour of C/C composite in high temperature and high pressure gas flow. The process of mechanical erosion of single carbon fibre is calculated by the DSMC method. The fracture criteria and mesoscale mechanical erosion model of carbon fibre are developed by theory of mechanics of materials. Finally, an engineering method for prediction of mesoscale mechanical erosion is formulated, and the predictions agree well with the experiment results. 11 Refs.

Title: COMPARISON OF THE MECHANICAL PROPERTIES BETWEEN 2D AND 3D ORTHOGONAL WOVEN RAMIE FIBER REINFORCED POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.187-192
Author(s): Qian Zhang; Xiaomeng Fang; Xiaojuan Sun; Baozhong Sun; Yiping Qiu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Polypropylene (PP) composites reinforced with ramie 2D plain fabric is widely developed recently. In this paper, PP composites reinforced by using 3D orthogonal woven ramie fabric under hot-press moulding process were made. The tensile and flexural strength of reinforced composites were tested and discussed. The results showed that the normalized tensile strength and the normalized tensile Young's modulus of 3D composite were significantly improved compared with that of 2D composites. The normalized flexural strength and the normalized flexural Young's modulus of 3D composite were also greatly improved. Overall results indicating that compared with 2D composite the 3D orthogonal woven ramie fabric could significantly improve the mechanical property of PP composites. 5 Refs.

Title: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE INTERLAYER TOUGHENING OF PIEZOELECTRIC SMART COMPOSITE PLATE
Page Range: p.193-202
Author(s): Bai Rui-xiang; Bai Haitong; Wang Mingchao
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
The piezoelectric composite material could engender stress concentration resulting from small cracks during layers easily, as the cracks growth will lead to the failure of the whole structure. In this paper, a finite element model for piezoelectric composite materials by ABAQUS including interlayer crack was established, and the J integral and crack tip stress of different types PZT patches were calculated by using the equivalent integral method. Then, the J integral for adhesive layers with different thickness, elastic modulus considering and not considering piezoelectricity was investigated. The results show that the J integral of mode I, II reduces with thicker adhesive layer and lower elastic modules, and the J integral of mode II decreases more sharply than that of mode I. 22 Refs.

Title: ENHANCEMENT OF TENSILE PROPERTIES OF FLAX FILAMENTS THROUGH MERCERIZATION UNDER SUSTAINED TENSION
Page Range: p.203-208
Author(s): Yuanyuan Xia; Guijun Xian; Hui Li
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
In the present paper, the tensile properties of flax filaments were modified through mercerisat under sustained tension forces. The tensile stress-strain curves of the treated filaments exhibit two stages. The slope of the first stage is much higher than the second one. The mercerisat under sustained forces leads the two-stage characteristic to be more obvious. The effect of the sustained tension force on the tensile properties of filaments is dependent on the alkaline concentration. The tensile properties were only remarkably enhanced with high concentration of alkaline (e.g., > 10%) and sustained forces. Compared to the untreated filaments, the maximum tensile strength and modulus with optimum treatment conditions are improved by about 36% and 64% respectively. SEM and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis suggested that the enhancement of the tensile properties of the treated flax filaments comes from the orientation of amorphous cellulose molecular chains of micro fibrils and remove of the defects of the filament surfaces. 9 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF FUNCTIONALIZATION OF MULTI-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES ON THE ELECTRICAL CONDUCTIVITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF UNSATURATED POLYESTER RESIN COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.209-214
Author(s): Jiuxing Jiang; Zhenhua Wang; Fan Xu; Jianjun Xu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
As the unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) has multiple functional groups, it can be solidified at ambient temperatures and pressures. But the low mechanical properties limit its application. In this paper, the functional multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) were modified by maleic anhydride to synthesize UPR composites by condensation reaction. Then we obtained the UPR composites with oriented MWCNTs by application of external electric field. The microstructure, electrical conductivity and mechanical properties of UPR composites were investigated by scanning electron microscope, infrared spectroscopy, impedance analyser and universal testing machine. It was found that the composites are anisotropy and the tensile strength and bending strength of composites with 0.5 wt.% lengthways MWCNTs are improved by 70%, 43%, the compressive strength with 0.5 wt.% is improved by 90%, the electrical conductivity increased to 10-7 S/cm when the contents reach to 1%. 17 Refs.

Title: STUDY OF THE MICROSTRUCTURE AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF PBSN ALLOYS DEPOSITED ON CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.215-220
Author(s): Chang Liu; Dajun Song; Lifeng Hao; Fan Yang; Weicheng Jiao; Rongguo Wang; Minghua Chen
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
In this paper, four groups of the plasma spray process parameters (g1, g2, g3 and g4) of PbSn coatings deposited on carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites (CFRE composites) were examined. The microstructure and phase composition of the as-sprayed coatings have been examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD), respectively. The bonding strength of the coatings to the substrates was detected on a RGD-5 tensile testing machine. Results indicate that the melting extent and the bonding strength of the coatings were evidently improved and the porosity decreased with the g3 parameters. However, the phases and the content of crystalline of PbSn coatings were slightly changed with all of the parameters. 11 Refs.

Title: FABRICATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF POLYIMIDE/ALN NANOCOMPOSITE FILMS
Page Range: p.221-226
Author(s): Chen Minghua; Yin Jinghua; Song Dajun; Liu Xiaoxu; Feng Yu; Su Bo
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 2

Abstract
Polyimide/AlN (PI/AlN) nanocomposite films were prepared by in-situ polymerisation method with different doping concentrations and their microstructures were investigated by small angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) technique. Analysed SAXS results indicate the average diameters of the nanoparticles in hybrid films distribute from 55 nm to 60 nm, which are consistent with the observation from Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). The Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) results confirm the formation of AlN particles in the PI matrix. The effects of content on the dielectric constant, loss tangent, breakdown strength and corona ageing were studied. The corona resistant time of PI/AlN with 20 wt.% doping concentration is 58.5 hours, which is twenty times more than that of pure PI. The results show that the corona resistance of PI/AlN has been improved significantly. 14 Refs.

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