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Title: DEVELOPMENT OF FILAMENT WOUND COMPOSITE ISOTENSOIDAL PRESSURE VESSELS
Page Range: p.227-232
Author(s): Lei Zu; Sotiris Koussios; Adriaan Beukers; Dinghua Zhang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Filament wound isotensoidal structures are recently gaining more attention for designing composite pressure vessels. In this paper we present the governing equation for creating geodesic-isotensoids based on the netting theory and geodesic winding law. The feasible intervals of the isotensoid-based design are also determined. The isotensoid-based dome profiles are determined by solving the governing equation with geometrical and initial winding conditions. When the applied axial load reaches a certain magnitude, the isotensoidal toroids can be obtained by forcing the isotensoid-based dome profile to become closed. The comparisons of the cross-sectional shapes between the isotensoidal dome and the hemispherical dome, and between the isotensoidal toroid and the circular toroid, are performed to demonstrate the preferable performance of the isotensoids. It is concluded that the isotensoid-based design leads to uniform fibre tension throughout the whole shell and the resulting structure can thus be considered as optimal for a pressure vessel. In addition, the isotensoid-based profiles show lower aspect ratios than the conventional vessel profiles under the given volume and internal pressure. Therefore the structural performance and the conformability to limited-height storage space of pressure vessels can be improved using the isotensoid-based design. 23 Refs.

Title: A STUDY ON THE NONDESTRUCTIVE EVALUATION OF CARBON/ CARBON BRAKE DISKS USING INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY
Page Range: p.233-240
Author(s): Hee Jae Shin; In Pyo Cha; Min Sang Lee; Sun Ho Ko; Hong Gun Kim; Lee Ku Kwac
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Carbon/carbon brake disks that use carbon fibres impregnated in a carbon matrix are widely utilized in aircrafts and automobiles owing to their high strength, high heat conductivity, low density, and excellent overall mechanical properties. Carbon/carbon brake disks are high cost products and require multi-process manufacturing. The safety and material efficiency of defective products reduces significantly and nondestructive testing is required to monitor the quality, homogeneity, and integrity of the material. In general, radiographic evaluations pose safety problems owing to the use of radiation in such evaluations and ultrasonic flaw detection is difficult to use because of its dependence on the surface of the specimen. This study uses an infrared thermography camera technique, which is not influenced by the sample surface, to monitor the heterogeneity of materials during the manufacturing process and to thus prove the reliability of the method. 15 Refs.

Title: CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOR OF THERMOTROPIC LIQUID CRYSTALLINE POLYMER REINFORCED POLYAMIDE 66 IN SITU COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.241-246
Author(s): Qunfeng Yue; Chuncheng Zhu; Shengrong Yang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
This paper studies the non-isothermal crystallisation kinetics of polyamide 66 (PA66) and thermal liquid crystal polymer (TLCP) in situ composites with contents of TLCP is 1 wt.% by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) at various cooling rates. The results show that TLCP acts as nucleator for PA66 matrix accelerating the crystallisation. It is speculated, from Avrami exponent and Liu method, that there is a strong hydrogen bonds between -NH-, -CO- groups of PA66 and -COOH and/or -OH groups of TLCP. Kissinger method is employed to obtain the activation energy of the crystallisation process and the results indicated that the addition of TLCP may entice the crystallisation of PA66 matrix. 10 Refs.

Title: HEMP REINFORCED COMPOSITES WITH ALKALIZATION AND ACETYLATION FIBRE TREATMENTS
Page Range: p.247-252
Author(s): Wang H; Kabir M M; Lau K T
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The increasing ecological and environmental concerns have led to the development of natural fibre composites. Chemical treatments are usually used to modify the surface of fibre to improve the bonding between fibre and resin. Alkalization and acetylation were used in this study to treat the hemp fibre. It was found that the chemical treatments remove the impurity and lignin, increasing the cellulose content of the hemp fibre. Removal of the surface lignin and hemicelluloses also exposes more active hydroxyl groups from cellulose to react with matrix. All these lead to the increase of mechanical properties. It is also noticed that excessive treatment is detrimental to the fibre internal structure itself and weaken the fibre. 16 Refs.

Title: MICRO-GEOMETRY MODELING BASED ON MONTE CARLO AND PERMEABILITY PREDICTION OF YARN
Page Range: p.253-260
Author(s): Bo Yang; Tianguo Jin
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
In order to simulate the resin filling process of Liquid Composite Modelling (LCM) such as Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM) effectively, the permeability tensor field of preform is needed to be predicted accurately in advance. In the several existing micro-permeability prediction models, the fibres are assumed to be regularly arranged (quadratic or hexagonal) to simplify the flow analysis, they all ignore the randomness of the fibre distribution in yarn. The micro-permeability is a preform property depending strongly on the preform's micro-geometry, so building the micro-geometry close to the real structure is significant to predict the micro-permeability of preform. In this work, we present a Monte Carlo moving method to obtain the fibre random distribution on the front and rear cross sections of yarn segment, then build the geometry model of the yarn segment, adjust the centre path line of fibre model by Bezier method, establish the micro-geometry model of yarn close to the real structure containing both axial and radial random factors. The micro-geometry model consisting of ~100 fibres is built using the mentioned method, the fibre volume fraction varies from 0.15 to 0.90, and CFD simulations are carried out to determine their permeability values. The results show that compared to the regular fibre arrays, the disordered fibre arrays have a greater axial permeability, and two special transverse flow effects emerged as the disorder of fibre distribution, named local channelling effect and local obstructing effect. Relative to the theory predicted transverse permeability, the simulated permeability increases in the high porosity yarn as the channelling effect dominates the liquid flow, vice versa, the simulated permeability decreases in the low porosity yarn since the obstructing effect dominates the liquid flow, the simulation results agree well with the experimental ones, indicating the validity of the micro-geometry modelling method. 14 Refs.

Title: PIEZOELECTRIC MODAL DAMPING PERFORMANCE OF 0-3 PIEZOELECTRIC COMPOSITE WITH CONDUCTING PHASE: NUMERICAL ANALYSIS AND EXPERIMENTS
Page Range: p.261-268
Author(s): Hongming Zhang; Xiaodong He; Fan Yang; Lifeng Hao; Zhonghai Xu; Rongguo Wang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The piezoelectric modal damping performance of 0-3 piezoelectric composite is discussed in this paper. The piezoelectric damping consisting of PZT piezoelectric ceramic, epoxy (EP) and electric carbon black (CB) is analysed by a numerical prediction method. The finite element analysis (FEA) method is used to predict the effective property of the 0-3 piezoelectric composites. And then the shunted piezoelectric theory is applied to predict the piezoelectric modal damping of 0-3 piezoelectric composites. The results show that the numerical results are accurate to predict the piezoelectric modal damping compared to the experimental results. Doping appropriate amount of CB can improve the damping of 0-3 piezoelectric composite. This work will help to predict the value of piezoelectric modal damping of the 0-3 piezoelectric composite and to optimize the damping design. 14 Refs.

Title: INTERFACIAL PROPERTIES OF NANO-SILICA MODIFIED CFRPS UNDER CRYOGENIC CONDITION
Page Range: p.269-274
Author(s): Rongguo Wang; Chengwei Zhang; Lifeng Hao; Weicheng Jiao; Fan Yang; Wenbo Liu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The change of interface performance between carbon-fibre and matrix resin influence the properties of carbon fibre reinforce polymer composites (CFRPs) when temperature was changed from room temperature to cryogenic conditions. In order to find the interfacial properties of epoxy/nano-silica matrix CFRPs under cryogenic conditions, the interfacial shear strength (IFSS) and the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) were investigated at room temperatures and 77K respectively. The morphology of fractured interface was investigated by scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that there are higher mechanical properties of interface at 77K condition. 11 Refs.

Title: STRUCTURAL DESIGN AND MULTI-OBJECTIVE EVALUATION OF COMPOSITE BLADED PROPELLER
Page Range: p.275-282
Author(s): Hong Y; Hao L F; Wang P C; Liu W B; Zhang H M; Wang R G
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
This paper describes the work to design a composite bladed marine propeller. The hydrodynamic load and the nonlinear structural responses are predicted by the coupled FEM/CFD method. A pre-twist strategy is used to determine a new geometry of the composite bladed propeller for improving the hydrodynamic performance. Different material schemes and symmetric stacking sequences are considered as the design parameters. An evaluation method of multi-objective function is presented for optimizing the strength, deflection and mass at design conditions. Numerical results are obtained and the optimal design scheme of the composite bladed propeller is obtained. 15 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF FIBER SURFACE ON THE INTERFACIAL PROPERTIES FOR CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.283-288
Author(s): Wenbo Liu; Shu Zhang; Lifeng Hao; Xueying Zhao; Weicheng Jiao; Fan Yang; Rongguo Wang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
We studied the effect of carbon-fibre surface on interfacial properties of carbon fibre reinforced plastic composites. Surface morphology and chemical composition of T-Series carbon fibres made in Japan were analysed by scanning electron microscope and X-Ray photoelectron spectra. The wettability between carbon fibres and epoxy resin was characterized by dynamic contact angle testing. The interfacial shear strength was obtained by microbond testing, and the destruction morphology of the interface observed that was used to determine the failure mechanism. 16 Refs.

Title: EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE ELECTRICAL RESISTIVITY OF GLASS-CARBON/EPOXY HYBRID COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.289-292
Author(s): Xin Liu; Zhanjun Wu; Rongguo Wang; Jia Yan
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The electrical resistivity of composite materials varies with the changing of structural parameters, and this feature could be used to improve their electromagnetic wave absorbing property. This work investigated the electrical resistivity of hybrid composites aiming at radar absorbing structures. The glass-carbon/epoxy hybrid composites with different structural parameters were prepared by filament winding machine. And the effects of hybrid style, hybrid ratio, curing pressure, fibre distribution and fibre orientation on electrical resistivity were tested. As the test results shown, firstly, the electrical resistivity of interlaminated hybrid composites is larger than that of intraply hybrid composite; secondly, the electrical resistivity of hybrid composite is inversely proportional to the content of carbon fibre; thirdly, the electrical resistivity of hybrid composite with carbon fibre homogeneous distribution is larger than that of hybrid composite with inhomogeneous distribution; finally, the electrical resistivity of hybrid composite would decrease with the curing pressure increasing. Interestingly, there are similar rules in the vertical and parallel direction of the fibres. These results are helpful to control and adjust the electrical resistivity of glass-carbon/epoxy hybrid composites. 11 Refs.

Title: TENSILE PROPERTIES OF EPOXY WITH MICROCAPSULES AND IMIDAZOLINE DERIVATIVES CURING AGENT AND INTERLAMINAR SELF-HEALING PROPERTIES OF CARBON FIBER REINFORCED EPOXY COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.293-298
Author(s): Honglin Hu; Lifeng Hao; Rongguo Wang; Wenbo Liu; Fan Yang; Weicheng Jiao; Zhonghai Xu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Microcapsules are inevitable defects in the resin matrix, which would greatly influence on mechanical performance of structural material. Therefore, a balance value of microcapsule's content between self-healing properties and mechanical properties should be provided for fabricating adequate self-healing materials. Epoxy resin with epoxy-containing microcapsules and latent hardener 2MZ-AZINE, and carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites were prepared. The tensile properties of epoxy resin with epoxy-containing microcapsules or 2MZ-AZINE were investigated. As the increase of content of latent hardener 2MZ-AZINE, tensile modulus and tensile stress of epoxy with 2MZ-AZINE decreases. The tensile stress of epoxy samples decreases with the enhancement of content of epoxy-containing microcapsules. Tensile modulus of epoxy with microcapsules decreases with the increase of microcapsule content below 10 wt.%, and tensile modulus increases above 10 wt.%. Considering the self-healing ability of epoxy sample, the content of microcapsules and latent hardener are concluded to 15 w% and 2 w%, respectively, offering a ~24.7 MPa tensile stress. The maximum interlaminar self-healing efficiency in this research is only 31.98% recovery of interlaminar tensile stress (epoxy resin matrix with 15 w% microcapsule and 2 w% latent hardener 2MZ-AZINE). As a consequence, this research provided the mechanical parameter for fabricating carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composite. 15 Refs.

Title: PREDICTION OF DELAMINATION BUCKLING AND GROWTH BEHAVIOR IN LAMINATED COMPOSITES WITH COEXISTING DELAMINATIONS
Page Range: p.299-308
Author(s): Fan Yang; Zhonghai Xu; Lu Zhang; Weicheng Jiao; Wenbo Liu; Xiaodong Sui; Jianguang Zhang; Rongguo Wang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Finite element method (FEM) using cohesive element is developed to predict delamination buckling and growth behaviour in laminated composites with coexisting delaminations under compressive loading. It is shown that the buckling behaviour of coexisting delaminations is far more complicated than single embedded delamination. In the course of delamination buckling and growth, a parametric study was carried out to investigate the influence of the distance between coexisting delaminations, delamination size and depth position of a series of composite plates. In particular, a three zone rule was put forwarded to define the interaction behaviour between coexisting delaminations. Moreover, it is shown that the potential of delamination growth strongly depends on the distance between coexisting delaminations. 27 Refs.

Title: THERMAL AGING BEHAVIOR OF CARBON FIBER/EPOXY COMPOSITES AT HIGH TEMPERATURE
Page Range: p.309-312
Author(s): Rongguo Wang; Long Jiang; Zhonghai Xu; Fan Yang; Lifeng Hao; Weicheng Jiao; Wenbo Liu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
To investigate the thermal ageing mechanism of carbon fibre/epoxy composites under high temperature (around 110 deg C), the present study examined the inter-laminar shear properties and curing degree. Experimental results showed the inter-laminar shear strength of carbon fibre/Epoxy composites firstly increased following with the ageing time increase which caused by secondary cure, then reduced for long-term of thermal stresses. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis revealed that the hydroxy functional groups had a certain growth which confirmed that secondary cure occurred during thermal ageing. Electron paramagnanetic resonance results indicated that the increase of the intensity of free-radicals may cause by the chain breaking. Also scanning electron microscopy (SEM) images of fracture surface indicated that carbon fibre and matrix had well combination, which contributed to the better residual shear properties. 7 Refs.

Title: RESEARCH ON NUMERICAL SIMULATION OF HEATING PROCESS OPTIMIZATION OF HEATED-MANDREL WINDING METHOD
Page Range: p.313-322
Author(s): Xu Jiazhong; Wang Rongguo; Qiao Ming; Yu Ying
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The heated-mandrel winding method (HMWM) is a new technology. However, the trial-and-error method usually used is not universally adopted in the manufacturing process of shells that have different shapes and performance requirements. Determining the heating process for the HMWM based on theoretical analysis has become an immediate problem. In this paper, a numerical simulation program for the HMWM is developed using the finite element software ANSYS and the programming language APDL. The entire process, which starts with the winding process and ends with the complete curing, is numerically simulated. The temperature distribution and change law, curing degree, and reactive calorific intensity are analysed. The relationship between the heating process and the outer surface temperature changes of the composite shell is derived based on the principle of temperature control in the HMWM. The heating process is optimized in accordance with the analysis, and the experimental results show that, based on the optimized heating process, the outer surface temperature range of the shell can be controlled during the winding process. Furthermore, the complex interactions among the temperature, curing degree, film coefficient, and heat transfer coefficient of the composite are investigated. This provides the basis for the technology optimisation based on theoretical considerations. 17 Refs.

Title: OPTIMAL DESIGN OF LIGHTWEIGHT COMPOSITE PRESSURE VESSEL BY USING ARTIFICIAL IMMUNE ALGORITHM
Page Range: p.323-328
Author(s): Weicheng Jiao; Yue Niu; Lifeng Hao; Fan Yang; Wenbo Liu; Rongguo Wang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
This research aims to optimize the weight of composite overwrapped pressure vessel (COPV) under internal pressure. In the paper, a new design method based on the clonal selection principle in the biological immunology is proposed to solve the minimum weight problem under the burst pressure constraint. The method consists of three main parts: the non-geodesic path algorithm, variable stiffness analysis algorithm and artificial immune algorithm. A software called SimWind 1.0 was developed on the basis of this method in order to design the composite pressure vessel rapidly and efficiently. Finally, a representative carbon fibre composite pressure vessel with ultrathin Al liner was designed and fabricated by using this new design method and the software. 17 Refs.

Title: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF SELF-HEALING CARBON FIBER-EPOXY COMPOSITE STITCHED WITH MENDABLE POLYMER FIBER
Page Range: p.329-336
Author(s): Yang T; Du Y; Li Z M; Wang C H
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Carbon fibre composites are self-healed by advance embedding of repairing agents in the composites. However, the repairing agent will influence the mechanical properties of the carbon fibre composites. In this study, poly(ethylene-co-methacrylic acid) (EMAA) filaments were stitched into carbon fibre-epoxy laminates to create a three-dimensional (3D) self-healing fibre system. Specimens with unmodified and self-healing laminates were manufactured. The mechanical properties of the carbon fibre-epoxy composite stitched with mendable polymer fibre for self-healing and unmodified laminates were compared experimentally. Results from the double cantilever beam test revealed that the stitched EMAA fibres increased the mode I interlaminar fracture toughness of the laminate by ~120%. However, short-beam shear (SBS) strength of the composite laminates with the healing agents was slightly degraded, with a 37% reduction in the average SBS strength. The compressive-after-impact assessment showed that the strength was reduced by 6.6%. C-Scan revealed the 3D inter-connected self-healing EMAA network within the composite laminates. 25 Refs.

Title: HEALING CARBON FIBER/POLYMER INTERFACE BY RESISTIVE HEATING
Page Range: p.337-340
Author(s): Rongguo Wang; Zhenxing Cao; Lifeng Hao; Weicheng Jiao; Fan Yang; Wenbo Liu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Interface is the key region which determines, to a great extent, the set of properties of all heterogeneous systems, including composite materials. We reported interface healing of carbon fibre reinforced thermoplastic composite material via resistive heating. The carbon fibre, T700 carbon fibre, with a resistivity of 1.66 x 10-3 -(.)cm was used as the heating element while the matrix is polyarylether sulphone with cardo. Micro-droplet experiment was used to study the interface strength before and after heating to determine the healing efficiency. The measurement shows (experimental results show) that resistive heating is an efficient way to heal cracks near interface. 8 Refs.

Title: PREPARATION AND PROPERTIES OF MDI-BASED POLYESTER POLYURETHANE ELASTOMER
Page Range: p.341-346
Author(s): Feng Yuan; Wenbo Liu; Fan Yang; Zhenqiang Zhu; Lifeng Hao; Jian Zhang; Weicheng Jiao; Rongguo Wang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
Polyurethane has been usually used as protective coating on structures, with an important mechanism being the impact-induced transition of the rubber to the glassy state. The better the mechanical property, the greater the mechanical loss, the wider the Tg range, and the Tg is more close to, but less than, the operating temperature, the better the protective coating. Here, the pre-polymer method is adopted to synthesize MDI-based polyester polyurethane (TPU) which has different hard segment contents. The influence of the hard segment content on the relevant performance of TPU is investigated. With the increase of the hard segment content, the tensile strength, Tg of the soft segment phase and the mechanical loss increase, while the viscosity of reaction solution increases rapidly, the elongation at break declines sharply, and the range of the Tg becomes narrower and narrower. Therefore, in order to obtain excellent protective coating, the hard segment content should not be too high. Testing proves 16.18% hard segment content to be most effective. 14 Refs.

Title: SIMULATION AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON MICRO-CRACK TOUGHENING MECHANISM FOR ATTAPULGITE/EPOXY NANOCOMPOSITE
Page Range: p.347-354
Author(s): Jian Zhang; Wen-bo Liu; Lifeng Hao; Feng Yuan; Zhonghai Xu; Fan Yang; Rongguo Wang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The main purpose of this article is to study the effect of adding attapulgite nanoparticle into the polymer on micro-crack toughing. Commercial softwares Abaqus and ANSYS were utilized to simulate the stress field and the crack expanding condition in the attapulgite/epoxy composite. The pure polymer and the nanoparticle modified polymer were prepared to investigate the effect of the nanoparticle on the crack conditions of the composite. The simulation results showed that the nanoparticle enhanced the polymer by the stress field concentration around the nanoparticle which consumed more energy, made the matrix absorb less deformation energy, and hindered the extension of crack. The result of tensile experiment indicated that the tensile property was improved by adding nanoparticle into epoxy polymer. The Scan Electric Microscope image of the fracture surface indicated that the nanoparticle changed the fracture mechanism of the composite. 10 Refs.

Title: NON-ISOTHERMAL SIMULATION OF RESIN TRANSFER MOLDING PROCESS WITH EDGE EFFECT
Page Range: p.355-360
Author(s): Yanyu Ding; Yuxi Jia; Shuhua Dong; Yihan Xu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
The resin infiltration stage during the resin transfer moulding process is complicated, which involves the edge effect, resin curing reaction and heat transfer phenomenon. In this paper, considering the edge effect, the integrated investigation on curing reaction, physical property, two-dimensional resin flow and three-dimensional temperature distribution is implemented in theory and numerical simulation. And then the evolution of coupling physical fields, such as resin temperature, curing degree and resin viscosity, is analysed numerically. The present study is helpful for understanding the complex relationships among a variety of parameters during the reactive filling process. 12 Refs.

Title: STUDY ON MECHANICAL BEHAVIORS OF VARIABLE-STIFFNESS COMPOSITE LAMINATES
Page Range: p.361-368
Author(s): Xu Zhonghai; Liu Zhe; Lv Xiaojing; Ma Hongtao; Hao Lifeng; Jiao Weicheng; Yang Fan; Wang Rongguo
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 3

Abstract
In this paper, we study the mechanical behaviours of variable-stiffness composite laminates by setting curvilinear fibre paths. We assume that the fibre orientation angles vary linearly with the reference axis. Based on the different fibre paths, we vary the fibre placement formats and the curvilinear fibre orientation angles of the composite laminates, and then make the simulation for the buckling loads of the three kinds of laminates: the straight fibre placement, the curvilinear fibre placement and the mixed fibre placement. By comparing and analysing, we give the best fibre placement format and the curvilinear fibre orientation angle. The study provides references to the design of variable-stiffness composite laminates. 15 Refs.

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