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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: STRUCTURE-PROPERTY RELATIONSHIPS IN ARAPAIMA GIGAS SCALES REVEALED BY NANOINDENTATION TESTS
Page Range: p.369-374
Author(s): Torres F G; Le Bourhis E; Troncoso O P; Llamoza J
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
Fish scales from Arapaima Gigas have been studied in terms of their structure (morphology, collagen content) and mechanical properties. A strong mechanical gradient was revealed in the scale, hardness and reduced modulus being reduced by a factor of three. Correlations between the hardness and reduced modulus and the mineral content have been found. The external mineral rich layers were determined to be hard and stiff while the inner surface, being collagen rich, was less hard and less stiff. The inside of the scales showed a progressive decrease of mechanical properties, with variations attributed to the plywood-like structure of the scale. 17 Refs.

Title: RUBBER WOOD FIBRE BASED FLEXIBLE COMPOSITES: THEIR PREPARATION, PHYSICAL STRENGTH REINFORCING AND STAB RESISTANCE BEHAVIOUR
Page Range: p.375-380
Author(s): Yong K C
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
Novel flexible laminated composites based on rubber compounds and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) wood fibres were successfully produced by using a carboxylated nitrile latex based adhesive system. All these laminated composites exhibited good reinforcing behaviour and strong elastomeric features. They also had a medium level of stab resistance strength, particularly for the 'edged blade' protection class according to the standard issued by the United States - National Institute of Justice. Hence, this type of laminated composite could potentially be targeted for anti-stab body armour applications. 21 Refs.

Title: PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE AND SURFACE MODIFIED GLASS-FIBRE COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.381-386
Author(s): Zhu L H; Sheng J F; Guo Z F; Ju X S; Li S; Chen Y F; Luo J
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
To improve the interfacial bonding between polypropylene (PP) and glass-fibre (GF), the surface modified glassfibre (SMGF) was prepared with the self-designed sizing containing organofunctional silanes and a copolymer. Then the SMGF-PP composites were prepared and those properties were observed by mechanical testing, light microscopy, X-ray diffractometry (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Mechanical tests displayed that SMGF-PP composites had an increase in tensile strength, tensile modulus, bending strength, bending modulus and notched impact strength compared to the pure PP. Light micrographs showed that the average fibre length of the composite was 397 (mu)m. XRD data indicated that the crystal size of SMGF-PP composites became smaller compared to pure PP, and SS form crystals of PP disappeared with the addition of SMGF to PP matrix. DSC data showed that SMGF could promote the crystallisation temperature of PP. TGA analyses showed that the thermal stability of SMGF-PP was better than that of pure PP. 12 Refs.

Title: PRODUCTION OF MICROMETER-SIZED COMPOSITE POLYMER-MAGNETIC SPHERES USING AS PRECURSOR METALLURGICAL WASTES
Page Range: p.387-392
Author(s): Perera-Mercado Y A; Betancourt-Galindo R; Saucedo-Salazar E M; Puente-Urbina B A; Medellin-Banda D I; Neira-Velazquez M G; Gutierrez-Villarreal M H; Garcia-Rodriguez S P
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
Micrometre-sized composite polymer-magnetic spheres consisting of a magnetic-spherical core with a polystyrene shell were produced. The magnetic-spherical core was produced by plasma thermal conversion of waste powders precursor (iron oxide) generated during the conventional process of steel production. Precursor powders were projected into an Ar-He plasma plume using industrial thermal-spray equipment. The results are a total conversion of the precursor powders into magnetic-spherical particles with diameters in the micrometre size range. The surfaces of the magnetic-spheres were functionalised by a chemistry hydrolysis method using 3-aminopropyltrimethoxysilane (APTMS) and creating superficial amine structures that improved the adherence of the final polystyrene shells that was polymerized by adapting the miniemulsion process. The products at the different synthesis steps were characterized by diverse techniques, such as: X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Fourier Transformed Infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and the magnetic properties were investigated with a vibrating sample magnetometer. 30 Refs.

Title: THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF CARBON BLACK FILLED SILICONE RUBBER
Page Range: p.393-400
Author(s): Jibin Wang; Qiuying Li; Chifei Wu; Haiyan Xu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
The effects of two types of carbon blacks (CBs), N990 and Vulcan XC-72, on the mechanical properties and thermal conductivity of filled silicone rubber (SR) were investigated. It was found that the addition of CB particles increased the thermal conductivity, the thermal stability and the tensile strength of the silicone rubber composites. The scanning electron microscope showed that Vulcan XC-72 of higher structure was more liable to form conductive network within the matrix, and the thermal conductivity of the composites filled by Vulcan XC-72 was superior to that of the composites filled by N990 at the same filler loading. The Agari model and the Payne effect were used to explain the influence of N990 and Vulcan XC-72 on the formation of thermal conductive networks. Furthermore, Vulcan XC-72 also had better enhancing effects on the mechanical properties and the electrical conductivity of the composites. It was notable that at the high filler contents, silicone rubber filled with N990 also possessed good general properties. 27 Refs.

Title: NONISOTHERMAL CRYSTALLIZATION BEHAVIOUR OF A NOVEL CYCLOALIPHATIC MICROCRYSTALLINE POLY(4,4'-AMINOCYCLOHEXYL METHYLENE DODECANEDICARBOXYLAMIDE)
Page Range: p.401-408
Author(s): Jianting Dong; Zhongyong Fan
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
Nonisothermal melt crystallisation behaviour and crystallisation kinetics of poly(4,4'-aminocyclohexyl methylene dodecanedicarboxylamide), a novel cycloaliphatic microcrystalline polyamide (named PA PACM12), are investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The results show that with decreasing cooling rate, the crystallisation peak becomes narrower and shifts to higher temperature, while the crystallisation enthalpy increases. The Avrami equation, Ozawa model and Mo method are proved to be suitable to describe the whole crystallisation process. Needle-like crystals of PA PACM12 are observed under polarizing optical microscopy (POM), which is in agreement with the characteristics of nucleation type and crystal geometry deduced from the Avrami analysis. 37 Refs.

Title: WATER ABSORPTION BEHAVIOUR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE/ PISTACHIO SHELL FLOUR NANOCOMPOSITES IN PRESENCE OF TWO DIFFERENT UV STABILIZERS
Page Range: p.409-416
Author(s): Abedini Najafabadi M A; Nouri Khorasani S; Moftakharian Esfahani J
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
In this research, for the first time, the effects were investigated of nanoclay as a secondary reinforcement, titanium dioxide (TiO2) and hindered amine light stabiliser (HALS) as UV stabilisers on some properties of high density polyethylene (HDPE)/pistachio shell flour (PSF) composite as the new wood plastic composite (WPC). WPCs of HDPE/PSF with different levels of nanoclay (Cloisite 20A), TiO2 and HALS were prepared. Some properties were investigated before exposure to weathering conditions. Design of experiments (DOE) was carried out to find the best formulation and decrease the number of tests. WPC granules were prepared by melt-mixing method using a twin screw extruder, and then moulded using an injection moulding machine to prepare samples. The results of X-ray diffractometry (XRD) indicated partial exfoliation and intercalation of samples containing 3 and 6 per hundred composite (phc) of nanoclay. The tensile strength and modulus of HDPE/PSF samples containing 3 and 6 phc nanoclay showed 20% increase compared to samples without nanoclay. The presence of TiO2 and HALS in the formulation did not have a significant effect on tensile properties. The nanoclay presence in HDPE/ PSF formulation improved the water absorption resistance. 17 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS OF ORGANO-MONTMORILLONITE/SODIUM ALGINATE GRAFT POLY(ACRYLIC ACID -CO-2-ACRYLAMIDO-2-METHYL-1-PROPANE SULFONIC ACID) SUPERABSORBENT COMPOSITE AND ITS ADSORPTION STUDIES
Page Range: p.417-422
Author(s): Linhui Zhu; Lili Zhang; Yaoji Tang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
A new superabsorbent composite based on the natural material sodium alginate (SA) was synthesised by intercalation graft polymerisation of SA, acrylic acid (AA), 2-acrylamido-2-methyl-1-propane sulphonic acid (AMPS) and organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) using ammonium persulphate (APS) as an initiator and N,N'methylenebisacrylamide (MBA) as a cross linker. The composite was characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and was used to remove heavy metal ions such as Pb2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ from aqueous solutions. Maximum adsorption capacities for Pb2+, Ni2+ and Cu2+ were 1485, 303 and 294 mg/g respectively. It was found that the adsorption of Pb2+ was consistent with both the Langmuir and the Freundlich model, while that of Ni2+ and Cu2+ was in accordance with the Langmuir model. Mechanisms for the adsorption process were speculated upon. It revealed that chelation was dominant for the adsorption of Pb2+, while ion-exchange played an important role for adsorption of Ni2+ and Cu2+. The superabsorbent composite had good reuse performance in wastewater treatment. 15 Refs.

Title: DESIGN AND ANALYSIS OF SMALL-SCALE LIFT-TYPE VERTICAL-AXIS WIND TURBINE USING COMPOSITE BLADE
Page Range: p.423-430
Author(s): Yang Zhong-Jia; Gu Yi-Zhuo; Li Min; Li Yan-Xia; Lu Jie; Zhang Zuo-Guang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
This paper focuses on verifying the feasibility of applying fibre reinforced polymer matrix composite to vertical axis wind turbine. A small-scale lift-type vertical axis wind turbine using glass fibre reinforced epoxy matrix sandwich composite blade was proposed. An airfoil profile of blade was designed and a composite blade was fabricated. The structure parameters of the blade were optimized by means of the finite element modelling method. The mechanical and the resonant properties of the blade were investigated. Finally, a wind turbine with the designed blade was assembled, and its generating capacity was tested. It was demonstrated that the designed composite blade and the wind turbine had excellent performance, indicating a promising technology for utilizing wind power. 16 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF THERMAL HISTORY ON BETA-NUCLEATED POLYPROPYLENE HOMOPOLYMER
Page Range: p.431-436
Author(s): Wahab M A; Samsudin M S F; Ahamid Z; Leong K H
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No. 4

Abstract
A-nucleant is used in polypropylene homopolymer (h-PP) primarily to improve its toughness as this particular property is important for piping and pipe coating application. In this work, the effect of p-nucleating agent on h-PP as topcoat material for pipe coating was investigated. The distribution of the nucleating agent in h-PP was controlled by solid-phase reactive extrusion. It was found that when subjected to second cycle of thermal exposure, the effect of e-nucleant upon h-PP crystallinity had increased significantly. This was desirable as it would enhance topcoat toughness. Several heating cycles were used to mimic the number of thermal exposures during processing. The effect of this simulated thermal history on the toughness enhancement was assessed and reported. The work has shown that, after a number of consistent thermal cycles, the percentage of r-crystals phase remained level. This will provide a much needed assurance on thermal and mechanical consistency in p-nucleated h-PP as well as enhance its viability for pipe coating applications. 8 Refs.

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