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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: IMPACT OF SINGLE AND MULTIPLE INJECTION SLOT LOCATIONS FOR ATTACHED-DIE AND DETACHED-DIE TAPERED RESIN INJECTION PULTRUSION
Page Range: p.495-508
Author(s): Ranjit S; Roux J A; Jeswani A L
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
This study compares the performances of the detached-die with the attached-die resin injection chamber configurations for pultrusion manufacturing. The impact of geometric design parameters (axial location of single injection slot and axial location of multiple injection slots) on the performances and complete reinforcement wetout for both the attached-die and detached-die configurations are investigated for various chamber lengths and compression ratios. Feasible manufacturing solutions are determined from the results. 18 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF SILANE COUPLING AGENT ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF POLYPROPYLENE MEMBRANE REINFORCED BY NATIVE SUPERFINE DOWN POWDER
Page Range: p.509-518
Author(s): Hongjun Yang; Xia Dong; Dujin Wang; Weilin Xu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
In order to improve the compatibility between native superfine down powder (NSDP) and polypropylene (PP), NSPD was surface-modified by grafting with a silane coupling agent. After modification of NSDP, Fourier-Transform infrared spectrometry was used to investigate the chemical reaction between NSDP and silane coupling agent, and the spectroscopy indicated that silane coupling agent was successfully grafted onto the particle surface. Modified and unmodified NSDP was used to reinforce PP membrane by hot-press method, and the morphology, thermal properties, melt mass-flow rate and mechanical properties of PP/NSDP hybrid membrane was investigated. The melt mass-flow rate, tensile stress, and break elongation of the hybrid membranes initially increased and then decreased with the increase of silane coupling agent concentration, which significantly correlated with the silane coupling agent amount that adhered on the particle surface. Up to 3% silane coupling agent concentration was sufficient to cover the NSDP surface and improve the compatibility between PP and NSDP. With continuously increasing of silane coupling agent concentration, the melt mass-flow rate and mechanical properties decreased, which ascribed to the decreasing bonding strength of entanglement network between long-chain hydrocarbon segments on NSDP surface and PP matrix. PP/NSDP hybrid membrane with excellent thermal and mechanical properties can be obtained by controlling the silane coupling agent concentration. 31 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF TIO2 CONTENT AND PROCESS PARAMETERS ON ELECTROSPUN POLY(ACRYLONITRILE)/TIO2 NANOFIBRES
Page Range: p.519-526
Author(s): Byung Chul Ji; Mohammad Mahbub Rabbani; Sang Su Bae; Jae Cheon Shin; Seong Baek Yang; Woo Seok Choi; Yang Soo Park; Kook Bae Do; Jeong Hyun Yeum
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Poly(acrylonitrile) (PAN) nanofibres containing variable amounts of titanium dioxide (TiO2) were successfully electrospun under different conditions to find optimum electrospinning conditions and to investigate the effects of TiO2 content and electrospinning parameters on the morphologies and thermal properties of PAN/TiO2 nanofibres. Various amounts of TiO2 were dispersed separately into PAN solutions. N, N'-dimethyl formamide (DMF) was used as a solvent. Electrospinning parameters such as applied voltage and tip to collector distance (TCD) were varied at a fixed PAN/TiO2 mixing ratio. The PAN/TiO2 nanofibres containing different amounts of TiO2 were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed TiO2 content and electrospinning parameters have direct influence on the morphologies of PAN/TiO2 nanofibres. Moreover, the addition of TiO2 significantly improved the thermal stability of the PAN nanofibres. 15 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF SULFATE ION ON THE PERFORMANCE OF POLYCARBOXYLATE COMB-LIKE COPOLYMERS IN CEMENT SUSPENSIONS
Page Range: p.527-532
Author(s): Qianping Ran; Min Qiao; Yinhui Yu; Jiaping Liu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Polycarboxylate comb-like copolymer (PCE) is a kind of polyelectrolyte, which is easily affected by the ions in cement suspensions. In this work, the effects of sulphate ion on the surface charge, adsorption and dispersion in cement system with PCE as dispersant were investigated in detail. The addition of sulphate ion apparently decreased the positive charge on the surface of cement particles. The sulphate ion reduced the adsorption and dispersibility of PCE in cement suspensions, which was due to the competition between sulphate ions and PCE in the adsorption behaviour on the surface of cement particles. 11 Refs.

Title: ELECTRICAL AND STEADY SHEAR RHEOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF POLYPROPYLENE COMPOSITES REINFORCED WITH SINGLE-WALLED CARBON NANOTUBES
Page Range: p.533-540
Author(s): Amir Narimani; Mahmood Hemmati
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
The steady shear rheological behaviour, morphological, electrical, physical and mechanical properties of melt-blended polypropylene (PP)/single walled carbon nanotube (SWNT) were investigated. The rheological behaviour results indicated that both PP and its nanocomposites exhibited non-Newtonian behaviour. Addition of SWNT increased the shear stress and shear viscosity. It was also found that the materials experience a fluid-solid transition at 0.5 wt.% SWNT. The die swell behaviour increased with increasing shear rate and also decreased with the SWNT content. The morphology and degree of dispersion SWNT in the polypropylene matrix were investigated by SEM. The electrical percolation threshold was formed at about 1 wt.% of SWNT. In addition, a difference between electrical and rheological percolation thresholds was observed. DSC results confirmed the expected nucleate effect of SWNT on the crystallisation process of polypropylene. It was also found that the tensile strength improved when 0.5 wt.% SWNT used. Furthermore, an increase in the tensile modulus was observed with increasing SWNT contents, but the elongation at break decreased. 41 Refs.

Title: CRYSTALLIZATION KINETICS OF RECYCLED HIGH DENSITY POLYETHYLENE AND COFFEE DREGS COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.541-550
Author(s): Sibele Piedade Cestari; Mendes L C; Altstadt V; Eloisa Biasotto Mano; Franca Da Silva D; Keller J-H
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
High density polyethylene (HDPE) - coffee dregs (COFD) composites were studied over a range of seven different temperatures, under isothermal crystallisation conditions, using differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) analysis. The aim was to observe the influence of filler content in the crystallisation kinetics of HDPE. Seven blends were prepared, the polymer-filler ratio ranging from 100-0 to 40-60%. The results were evaluated using the Johnson-Mehl-Avrami-Kolmogorov equation. The equilibrium melting temperature was determined by applying the Hoffman-Weeks method. The materials were also evaluated through scanning electron microscopy, differential scanning calorimetry and thermogravimetry/derivative thermogravimetry. 32 Refs.

Title: RADIOCHEMICAL GRAFT COPOLYMERIZATION AND CHARACTERIZATION OF ACRYLATE MONOMERS ON TO POLYETHYLENE FILM
Page Range: p.551-560
Author(s): Inderjeet Kaur; Anupam Gupta; Vandna Kumari
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
Functionalisation of polyethylene (PE) film by radiation-induced graft copolymerisation of ethyl acrylate (EA) and ethyl methacrylate (EMA) has been carried out using a preirradiation technique to develop materials with different degrees of grafting for use in ion separation processes. The influence of reaction conditions such as preirradiation dose, monomer concentration, reaction time and amount of solvent on percentage of grafting (Pg) has been studied and maximum Pg values of EA (144.97%) and EMA (142.35%) were respectively obtained at [EA] = 0.92 mol/L, [EMA] = 0.80 mol/L, total dose = 14.4 kGy and 17.28 kGy at 100 deg C in 120 and 180 min. The effect of different monohydric alcohols of varying chain lengths on Pg has also been studied. The modified films have been characterized by FTIR, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods. Some selective properties of pristine and grafted PE film such as swelling and ion uptake studies have also been investigated. The grafted films showed better swelling and ion uptake capacity in comparison to the pristine film. 20 Refs.

Title: MECHANICAL PROPERTIES AND TRIBOLOGICAL BEHAVIOUR OF RETRIEVED UHMWPE TIBIAL INSERT IN TOTAL KNEE REPLACEMENT AFTER IMPLANTATION 30 MONTHS
Page Range: p.561-568
Author(s): Xueqin Kang; Shirong Ge; Xiaofeng Dai
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
This study was performed to investigate the performance changing of an ultra high molecular weight polyethylene (UHMWPE) tibial insert, which was removed from a 56 years old male patient after 30 months of service. The tibial insert was investigated by using a contact angle goniometer, UMT-2 friction tester and MicroXAM threedimensional profilometer to characterize the wettability, ball indentation hardness, creep resistance, friction and wear performance. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was employed to describe the morphology of the sample surface of unused and retrieved UHMWPE after friction and wear test. Surface differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) was used to calculate the surface crystallinity of UHMWPE. The results showed that the contact angle of retrieved UHMWPE with bovine calf serum was obviously decreased by about 15% compared with unused UHMWPE. The surface crystallinity of retrieved UHMWPE increased 9.6% compared with unused UHMWPE. All of these induced the ball indentation hardness and creep resistance decreased 18% and 31%, the wear loss of retrieved UHMWPE increased 24% compared with unused UHMWPE. 33 Refs.

Title: A NEW SILICA-RICH MATERIAL FROM WASTE FLY ASH - GENERATION, CHARACTERISATION AND STUDY OF ITS EFFECTIVENESS AS A FILLER FOR RUBBER COMPOUNDS
Page Range: p.569-580
Author(s): Mridul Dasgupta; Saikat Das Gupta; Rabindra Mukhopadhyay; Abhijit Bandyopadhyay
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.6

Abstract
A silica-rich material was generated from waste fly ash and it was subsequently characterized and experimented in ESBR compounds to find its suitability to be used as a filler for rubber compounds. This material contained 97.5% silica and 2.5% alumina. Characterisation of this material, designated as Modified Fly Ash (MFA), revealed the presence of characteristic peaks of silica in an FTIR study, and the surface area was found to be 110-115 m2/g. The effect of this material as a filler for rubber compound has been studied in ESBR compounds at low, medium and high filler loadings, and the compound properties were compared with those of compounds filled with two commercially available grades of silica, namely VN2-Silica (surface area 120-125 m2/g) and VN3-Silica (165-170 m2/g), at similar loadings. MFA showed the highest cure rate index, elongation at break and lowest heat generation among the three fillers at all the levels of filler loading. The tensile strength and 300% modulus of MFA filled compounds were inferior to those of VN3-silica, but they were closer to the values obtained for VN2-silica filled compounds. These two properties of MFA and VN2-Silica were comparable at low filler loading and at medium to high loading, the properties exhibited by VN2-Silica could be matched by using higher dosage of MFA. 34 Refs.

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