Polymer Journals

Polymers and Polymer Composites

Logged into APC, CP, IPSAT, PPC, PRR, RRR & PRPRT.

Back  Search



Title: PREPARATION OF DEHYDROCHLORINATED POLY(VINYL CHLORIDE) (DHPVC) AND DHPVC NANOFIBRES: EFFECTS OF REACTION TIME ON CONDUCTIVITY, ELECTROSPINABILITY, AND FIBRE MORPHOLOGY
Page Range: p.581-590
Author(s): Phapada Khunsriya; Jatuphorn Wootthikanokkhan; Narumon Seeponkai; Chumphon Luangchaisri
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
This research work concerns the development of dehydrochlorinated poly(vinyl chloride) (DHPVC) and DHPVC nanofibres for use as components in new generation solar cells. Firstly, DHPVC with a variety of degrees of dehydrochlorination was prepared at 70 deg C. The primary aim of this work was to investigate the effects of reaction time (15-105 h) on the molecular structure and conductivity of the modified PVC. In addition, the feasibility of preparing DHPVC nanofibre web via an electrospinning process was also explored. The effects of electrospinning on the morphology and conductivity of the materials were also of interest. From the results, it was found that the degree of dehydrochlorination and electrical conductivity of DHPVC are interrelated and both increased linearly with the reaction time. After carrying out electrospinning using a DHPVC sample which had been subjected to 30 h reaction time (DHPVC-30h), a randomly oriented fibre web with a smoother fibre surface and free from beads was obtained. This was not the case for the electrospun PVC and DHPVC-15h fibres. The electrical conductivity values of the electrospun DHPVC were also higher than those of the dense DHPVC film analogues. This is ascribed to an enhanced molecular alignment and a greater conjugation length of the polymer induced by the electrospinning. 26 Refs.

Title: PHOSPHATE DERIVATIVE FLAME RETARDANTS ON PROPERTIES OF PINEAPPLE LEAF FIBER/ABS COMPOSITES
Page Range: p.591-598
Author(s): Poonsub Threepopnatkul; Thanaphat Krachang; Chanin Kulsetthanchalee
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Pineapple leaf fibres (PALF) are abundant to the agricultural products which are native to the tropical climate region. It also exhibit excellent tensile strength and tensile modulus. Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) copolymer possess several prominent properties such as strength, rigidity and toughness. Both ABS and PALF are at high risk to the fire hazard when used in daily life. The improvement of flame retardancy of composite materials has been the priority for the safety requirements of natural fibre composite products. This research is aimed to study the effect of two different phosphate compounded flame retardants i.e., bisphenol-A bis (diphenyl phosphate) (BDP) and 9, 10-Dihydro-9-oxa-10-phosphaphenanthrene-10-oxide (DOPO) on the flammability, mechanical and thermal properties of the composites of modified natural pineapple leaf fibre reinforced acrylonitrile butadiene styrene. 10% by weight of such PALF was compounded with ABS using diisononyl phthalate 1% w/w as plasticiser at the different flame retardant concentration (10 and 20 wt.% of ABS). The effects of flame retardants showed that the PALF/ABS composite containing DOPO showed enhanced performance in terms of flame retardancy and even act as self-extinguisher. Higher content of flame retardants led to increase limiting oxygen index value. Moreover, DOPO added composites produced superior mechanical properties such as young's modulus and tensile strength. Furthermore, both thermal degradation temperature of PALF/ABS composites with DOPO and thermal degradation temperature of PALF/ABS composites with BDP showed relatively lower temperature than the ones of PALF/ABS composites. 18 Refs.

Title: INFLUENCE OF AROMATIC CONTENT IN RUBBER PROCESSING OILS ON VISCOELASTIC BEHAVIOUR AND MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF STYRENEBUTADIENE-RUBBER FOR TYRE TREAD APPLICATIONS
Page Range: p.599-606
Author(s): Yotwadee Chokanandsombat; Chakrit Sirisinha
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In the present study, experiments have been carried out to investigate the effects of aromatic and polycyclic aromatic compounds (PCAs) contents in rubber processing oils (RPOs) on the processability and mechanical properties of styrene butadiene rubber (SBR) compounds and vulcanisates. Results obtained suggest that, as expected, the presence of RPOs leads to a decreased compound viscosity, and thus an enhanced processability. By incorporating the RPOs into SBR compounds, some mechanical properties, including elongation at break and tear strength, of cured SBR can be improved, particularly for the RPOs with high aromatic content. This is believed to be attributed to the increased compatibility of aromatic containing RPOs and the SBR matrix. Nevertheless, the aromatic and PCA contents play an insignificant role on the crosslink density and bulk viscosity of the rubber compounds as well as the hardness and compression set of the rubber vulcanisates. 27 Refs.

Title: DEVELOPMENT OF HYPERELASTIC MODEL FOR NATURAL RUBBER CONTAINING WELDLINES
Page Range: p.607-612
Author(s): Watcharapong Chookaew; Jirachai Mingbunjerdsuk; Pairote Jittham; Somjate Patcharaphun
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Several constitutive models of non-linear large elastic deformation based on strain-energy-density functions have been developed for hyperelastic materials. These models, coupled with the Finite Element Method (FEM), can effectively utilized by design engineers to analyse and design elastomeric products operating under the deformation states. However, due to the complexities of the mathematical formulation which can only obtained at the moderate strain and the assumption of material used for the analysis. Therefore it is formidable task for design engineer to make use of these constitutive relationships. In the present work, the strain-energy-density function of natural rubber part containing a weldline was constructed by using the Neural Network (NN) model. The analytical results were compared to those obtained by Neo-Hookean, Mooney-Rivlin, Ogden models. Good agreement between developed NN model and the existing experimental data was found, especially at very low strain and at very high strain. 14 Refs.

Title: MICROWAVE-ASSISTED MODIFICATION OF CELLULOSE AS A COMPATIBILIZER FOR PLA AND MCC BIOCOMPOSITE FILM: EFFECTS OF SIDE CHAIN LENGTH AND CONTENT ON MECHANICAL AND THERMAL PROPERTIES
Page Range: p.613-624
Author(s): Voravadee Suchaiya; Duangdao Aht-Ong
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
This research focused on the utilisation of modified banana leaf sheath (BS) to be used as the compatibiliser for biocomposite films based on poly(lactic acid) (PLA) and 40 wt.% banana leaf sheath microcrystalline cellulose (BS MCC). Two types of cellulose ester, i.e. cellulose butyrate and cellulose laurate were used as a compatibiliser. The cellulose esters were prepared via acylation process under microwave heating. The proper condition for preparing cellulose butyrate was 180 sec of reaction time and 80 watt of microwave power, while the suitable condition for preparing cellulose laurate was 150 sec of reaction time and 160 watt of power output, respectively. These optimum conditions led to the highest percentage of weight increase (%WI) and the absence of the degradation of cellulose. The butyrate and laurate were successfully grafted on the BS MCC which was confirmed by FT-IR and NMR spectroscopy techniques. For biocomposite films, although the increase of cellulose laurate or cellulose butyrate induced the decrease in Young's modulus of 40 wt.% BS MCC/PLA composite, the elongation at break of 40 wt.% BS MCC/PLA composite was increased. Likewise, the presence of 5 wt.% cellulose butyrate or cellulose laurate contributed to the highest tensile properties, especially in elongation at break, when compared to other contents of cellulose ester. According to SEM micrographs, the presence of both cellulose esters can improve the compatibility between PLA and MCC as evidenced by the disappearance of many holes in 40 wt.% BS MCC/PLA composites. Comparatively, cellulose butyrate is an effective compatibiliser for improving the elongation at break of 40 wt.% BS MCC/PLA since it had better compatibility with BS MCC and PLA matrix than cellulose laurate. However, the addition of both cellulose esters, i.e. cellulose butyrate or cellulose laurate, led to the decrease in the degradation temperature (Td) of 40wt.% BS MCC/PLA, particularly when adding cellulose laurate. 32 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND THERMAL STABILITY OF CROSSLINKED CARBAZOLE-SUBSTITUTED POLY(DIMETHYLSILOXANE) FOR LED ENCAPSULATION
Page Range: p.625-632
Author(s): Norhuda Hidayah Nordin; Mohamad Riduwan Ramli; Nadras Othman; Zulkifli Ahmad
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
A series of carbazole substituted poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) was synthesised by hydrosilylation reaction of 9-vinyl carbazole into PDMS structure. It was then crosslinked with vinyl trimethoxysilane by condensation reaction. The fabricated product increased in refractive index with increasing carbazole content. The higher carbazole content also produced high thermal stability with an increase in Tg and degradation temperature. This behaviour owe much to the carbazole moiety as well as the formation of crosslink network These features contribute to potential use as electronic devices encapsulants and coatings. 26 Refs.

Title: SYNTHESIS AND INVESTIGATION OF SILATRANE COMPLEX AS A NEW FLAME RETARDANT IN POLY(ETHYLENE TEREPHTHALATE)/MONTMORILLONITE NANOCOMPOSITES
Page Range: p.633-642
Author(s): Phawittra Sonsilchai; Duangdao Aht-Ong
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
The purpose of this research was to improve the flame retardant properties of PET using silatrane complex synthesised from silica through one pot process. In addition, the synergistic effect of flame retardant agents between silatrane complex and montmorillonite (MMT) at various concentrations was investigated. The characteristics of the obtained silatrane complex were studied by FT-IR, 29Si-NMR, SEM, and TGA. Different ratios of PET/MMT/silatrane complex nanocomposites were prepared by melt bending process using a twin screw extruder and compressed into various shapes by a compression moulding machine, respectively. The effects of single flame retardant and co-flame retardant agents on morphology, flame retardant properties, and mechanical properties of PET nanocomposites were evaluated. LOI values and UL-94V rating were used as parameters for determine flame retardant properties of PET nanocomposites. The results showed that LOI values of PET/MMT/ silatrane complex nanocomposites were evidently greater than that of neat PET and increased with increasing the silatrane complex concentration. The LOI value of PET/2%MMT/7%silatrane nanocomposites was highest and increased up to 60.75%, compared with that of neat PET. While neat PET was classified into V-2 rating since it showed sustainable burning and melt-dripping behaviour during burning process, PET/MMT/silatrane complex nanocomposites did not show such behaviour and thus could be designated as V-0 rating. The enhancing of flame retardant properties for PET nanocomposites was attributed from the synergistic effect of MMT and silatrane complex. When they undergo decomposition through an endothermic reaction, MMT and silatrane complex can form homogeneous carbonaceous char and highly silicate-crosslink structure, respectively, in the condensed phase while burning. This multilayer can significantly improve the flame retardant properties of PET/MMT/ silatrane complex nanocomposites. The mechanical properties of PET/2%wt MMT nanocomposites were better than those of neat PET but further increasing the amount of MMT and silatrane complex, phase separation and agglomeration occurred leading to the reduction in the mechanical properties. 15 Refs.

Title: EFFECT OF ORGANOCLAY INCORPORATION ON MECHANICAL, BARRIER AND THERMAL PROPERTIES AND ANTI-BACTERIAL PERFORMANCE OF PLA AND PLA COMPOSITES WITH TRICLOSAN AND WOOD FLOUR
Page Range: p.643-652
Author(s): Prapruddivongs C; Sombatsompop N; Jayaraman K
File size:
Download the pdf (subscribers only)
Buy the pdf (non-subscribers)
Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 22
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Polylactic acid (PLA) is a biodegradable polymer which has a wide range of applications; in this work, all PLA based composites formulations were compounded by twin screw extruder and testing specimens were produced. This article focuses on determinations of mechanical, antibacterial, thermal and barrier properties of PLA composites. It was found that only the tensile modulus of PLA composites increased while the others decreased when 10% wood was loaded. The effect of Triclosan and Cloisite (Registered) 30B compounding did not change the mechanical properties and glass transition temperature. However, by the presence of wood and Cloisite (Registered) 30B, Tm values of the composites exhibited double peak characteristic which was related to an increase in crystallinity level. Antibacterial activity of the PLA composites was improved with the Cloisite (Registered) 30B content, and this was attributed to cationic bactericide quaternary ammonium group between the silicates layers. Hydrophobic material Triclosan obviously changed water vapour permeability (WVP) of the PLA from 8.24 x 10-11 to at 7.26 x 10-11 g.mm/mm2.h.Pa for triclosan/PLA specimens. All PLA composites samples with 0.5% clay content showed a significant increase in oxygen barrier property. 22 Refs.

%>