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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: Effect of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene content on the bond properties of crimped macro polypropylene fibre in styrene butadiene latex-modified cement-based composites
Page Range: p.65-70
Author(s): Ri-On Oh; Seung-Kee Lee; Chan-Gi Park
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
The influence of maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene (mPP) on the bond characteristics of macro propylene (PP) fibre and styrene butadiene (SB) latex-modified, cement-based composites was investigated. The mPP content ranged from 0 to 40% of the cement weight. Bonding strength and interfacial toughness were measured in accordance with standard method JCI SF-8. Both bonding strength and interfacial toughness increased with increasing amounts of mPP up to 15% but decreased with mPP levels above 20%. mPP strengthens the interfacial bonding between fibre and cement by forming hydrogen bonds. Because mPP is hydrophilic, it also fills pores created at the interface between macro PP, a non-hydrophilic material, and the cement composite. As a result, the overall bonding performance of the composite was enhanced by increasing the frictional force and inhibiting crack generation and growth under fibre pullout loads. These mechanisms were confirmed by fine structure analyses of the micro-PP fibre surface after pullout tests. The amount of mPP used in the composite had a strong influence on the frictional force generated at the interface between the fibre and the cement matrix. 12 Refs.

Title: The filling of a mould cavity with simultaneous impregnation of the reinforcing porous layer
Page Range: p.71-76
Author(s): Baranov A V
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
The isothermal filling of a flat mould cavity by a Newtonian fluid with simultaneous impregnation of the reinforcing porous layer is investigated. The flow in the cavity is described by inertialess Navier-Stokes equations, the flow in the porous layer by Darcy's law, and the flow in the region adjacent to the 'liquid-porous layer' boundary by the Brinkman equation. 26 Refs.

Title: Statistically designed high and low methyl acrylate (MA) containing EMA-ethylene-octene copolymer double network hybrids: interesting contrast in physico-mechanical, rheological and electrical properties
Page Range: p.77-84
Author(s): Rumiya Pervin; Soumya Mondal; Luna Goswami; Vijayabaskar V; Abhijit Bandyopadhyay
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
This paper demonstrates interesting contrasts between physical, mechanical and rheological properties of double network hybrids developed from high (30 wt.%) and low (9 wt.%) methyl acrylate containing poly (ethylene-co-methyl acrylate) and poly (ethylene-co-octene) thermoplastic elastomer. The compositions were designed adopting a Taguchi L9 statistical model. The model was espoused to consider a wide range of blend compositions and process conditions for optimisation. The majority of the low methyl acrylate containing hybrids showed normal correlation between mechanical and other physical properties with the net gel content while for the other variety, they were ambiguous. The reason was investigated and it was found to be due to the influence of the nature of crosslinks formed between the phases which controlled the properties in the latter. Based on the results, finally, two blend compositions were chosen from each set as the most optimized formulations for future study. 19 Refs.

Title: Poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate)/ magnetite nanocomposites: interaction of some liquid fuels, thermal and oil resistance studies
Page Range: p.85-92
Author(s): Ramesan M T
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
Nanocomposites of poly (ethylene-co-vinyl acetate) (EVA) with magnetite (Fe3O4) particles were prepared in a laboratory size two roll mixing mill. The extent of interaction of nanoparticles in EVA was studied by X- ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). XRD patterns showed that the nanoparticles enhanced the crystalline nature of the polymer. Composite with 7 parts per hundred (phr) of Fe3O4 showed the uniform dispersion of nanoparticles in the EVA phase. The TGA result showed that the decomposition temperature of EVA/ Fe3O4 nanocomposites was much higher than the decomposition rate of pure EVA. Petrol, diesel and kerosene sorption by nanocomposites in the temperatures range of 28 to 50 deg C have been investigated. The minimum solvent uptake was obtained for the composite with 7 phr of filler and the value increased with increase in concentration of nanoparticles was due to the aggregation of nanoparticles at higher loading. Diesel showed the lowest interaction with composites compared to petrol and kerosene. It was found that the temperature activates the diffusion and the activation parameters were calculated. The oil resistance properties of the nanocomposite were higher than that of EVA and resistance to oil increased with increase in concentration of nanoparticles. 28 Refs.

Title: Wavelength sensitivity in polypropylene/clay composite photooxidation
Page Range: p.93-102
Author(s): Samira Aslanzadeh; Haghighat Kish M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
The photo-oxidation behaviour of polypropylene/maleic anhydride-grafted polypropylene/organic modified montmorillonite (PP/PPgMA/OMMT) composites with short wavelength (UVC) and long wavelength (UVA) ultraviolet radiation was examined. The samples were prepared in a co-rotating twin-screw extruder and compatibilisers with different degrees of maleation were used. The photo-oxidative stability was studied using FTIR spectroscopy and microscopy. During UVA exposure, the rate of photo-oxidation of PP/PPgMA/OMMT increased with the amount of maleic anhydride from 0.1 to 0.5 wt.% in PPgMA. However, even after 2500 h of exposure to the radiation, the FTIR spectrum of pristine PP did not show significant changes. For UVC radiation, the rate of photo-oxidation of PP/PPgMA/OMMT composites was the same as that of pristine PP. On the other hand, there was a difference between PP and PP/PPgMA/OMMT composites in the formation of a crack on the back surfaces of the sheets facing the UVC sources. The difference was due to the presence of Fe3+ in clay layers that had the effect of UV-protection and blocking in the UVC region. 54 Refs.

Title: Preparation, mechanical and thermal properties of poly(butylene terephthalate) and its nanocomposites prepared from cyclic butylene terephthalate
Page Range: p.103-108
Author(s): Bin Yang; Limin Zhou; Jifeng Zhang; Lu Zhang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
Polymerized cyclic butylene terephthalate (pCBT) casts and pCBT/nano-silica composites generated from cyclic butylene terephthalate (CBT) were manufactured. The mechanical properties of pCBT casts with various ratio of catalyst were investigated through three-point bending test, and the thermal properties of the samples were tested by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Moreover, the fracture morphologies of pCBT as well as its nano-silica composites were observed by SEM. From the study, suitable catalyst content for CBT resin was determined and pCBT/nano-silica composites were found to have better thermal performances compared with neat pCBT. 16 Refs.

Title: Effect of starch fillers on the dynamic mechanical properties of rubber biocomposite materials
Page Range: p.109-112
Author(s): Datta J
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
The results of the dynamic mechanical study of biocomposites filled with different amounts of potato starch and corn starch are discussed. The composites were obtained from rubber mixtures containing natural rubber (NR) as a main component. Plastification of NR and rubber mixture was achieved by using the rubber open mixing mill (friction ratio 1.08). The vulcanisation process was realized with a hydraulic press under predetermined conditions (pressure ca. 5 MPa, temperature ca. 143 deg C, and processing time of 7, 12, 17 min). Thermomechanical analysis (by DMTA) showed that the quantity of starch fillers had only a slight influence on the glass transition temperature of the produced vulcanisate materials. 14 Refs.

Title: Effect of red phosphorus masterbatch on flame retardancy and thermal stability of polypropylene/thermoplastic polyurethane blends
Page Range: p.113-120
Author(s): Yang Xu; Mengqi Tang; Xiaolang Chen; Man Chen; Jie Yu; Yonghong Ma; Zhidan Sun; Zhibin Zhang; Jun Lv
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.2

Abstract
In this work, red phosphorus masterbatch (RPM) was filled into polypropylene/thermoplastic polyurethanes (PP/ TPU) blends as a halogen-free flame retardant. The flammability behaviour, thermal stability and mechanical properties were investigated by limit oxygen index (LOI), UL-94 vertical burning, cone calorimeter tests (CCT), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that the addition of RPM improved the flame retardant performance of PP/TPU blends. The LOI values of the composites with RPM were higher than that of the PP/TPU blends, and the UL-94 V-2 rating was achieved for PP/TPU/RPM composites. The CCT results further indicated that the heat release rates (HRR), total heat release (THR), and the CO2 production rate (CO2P) decreased in comparison with the PP/TPU blends. TGA data indicated that RPM greatly enhanced the thermal stability and char residues of PP/TPU blends. The addition of RPM deteriorated the tensile strength of the PP/TPU/RPM composites. However, the impact strength of the composites was improved. 24 Refs.

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