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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: Full-field measurement at the weave scale in hemp/epoxy composite using digital image correlation
Page Range: p.589-600
Author(s): Perrier A; de Vasconcellos D S; Touchard F; Chocinski-Arnault L; Mellier D
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
This paper presents the strain field analysis of a woven hemp composite. Two different stacking sequences were tested: [0/90]7 and [plus/minus 45]7. Tensile tests were coupled with a digital image correlation method in order to measure in-plane longitudinal, transverse and shear strain fields. Strong heterogeneities were observed in both stacking sequences. The obtained spatial resolution was fine enough to allow the comparison of maximum and minimum deformation areas in strain fields with the corresponding weave architecture. It was observed that strain levels were directly linked with strand positions. Results gave, for the studied woven hemp composite, a complete analysis of the local deformation mechanisms. 26 Refs.

Title: In situ polymerisation of pyrrole within the lattices of mesoporous hexagonal silica systems
Page Range: p.601-608
Author(s): Feraille G; Foot P J S; Singer R J
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
This study concerns the preparation and characterisation of electrically conducting polypyrrole-silica (PPySi) composites. Pyrrole monomers were adsorbed in nanoporous MCM-41 silicas exhibiting a hexagonal (H1) geometry, some of which had been functionalised using aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APS), and chlorotrimethylsilane (TMS). Composites were then produced through oxidative polymerisation and doping with anions, mainly sodium sulphonates (methylbenzenesulphate (MBSA), dodecylbenzenesulphonate (DBSA) and diethylhexylsulphosuccinate (DEHS)). An attempt to produce similar composites via direct threading of "soluble" polypyrrole was also investigated in order to study the effect of confined geometries on the growth and properties of polypyrrole chains. The final composites exhibited semiconducting properties (aaup to 10-3S. cm-1), and improved thermal and environmental stabilities, making them suitable for applications such as sensors and antistatic agents. 20 Refs.

Title: Tri-block copolymer based on crystallizable amide segments and functionalized polystyrene
Page Range: p.609-620
Author(s): Vakees E; Suresh J; Kayalvizhi M; Karthik S; Arun A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
This article discusses the synthesis and characterisation of segmented tri-block copolymers using monofunctional hard segments (mHS) and difunctional polystyrene soft segments. The main goal of this work was to modify high Tg polystyrene to semicrystalline material, thereby increasing the solvent resistance. Three hard segments were used. The soft segment molar mass was varied from 2500 to 10000 g/mol using dimethyl terephthalate (DMT) as a chain extender. The viscosity of the copolymer linearly increased with respect to the molecular weight of the SS. The crystallisation behaviour of the copolymer was studied by DSC and FT-IR. The TGA results revealed that all copolymers had single-stage decomposition centred around 427 deg C, and the solvent resistance of these materials was very high even at a low amide content. All the copolymers showed low water absorption. 23 Refs.

Title: Preparation and characterization of an aromatic imidefunctionalized polysilsesquioxane via the sol-gel route
Page Range: p.621-626
Author(s): Schramm C; Rinderer B; Tessadri R
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Phthalic acid (benzene-1,2-dicarboxylic acid, PA) and trimesic acid (benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxylic acid, TA) have been reacted with 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane (APTES) at 110 deg C and 220 deg C (molar ratios 1:1 and 1:2). The reaction at 110 deg C resulted in the formation of the corresponding poly(amic acid), whereas the thermal imidisation at 220 deg C gives rise to the formation of a cyclic polyimide moiety as shown by means of Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) measurements revealed that a specific periodic arrangement in the as-prepared materials had been formed. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) made evident that the organic-inorganic nanocomposite materials showed improved thermal properties. The reaction of PA with APTES (1:1) at 220 deg C is assumed to yield a ladder-like polysilsesquioxane. 25 Refs.

Title: Design of a flat plate specimen suitable for biaxial tensile tests on polymer materials
Page Range: p.627-638
Author(s): Nayeem Tawqir Chowdhury; Wang J; Wing Kong Chiu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
Since the introduction of fibre-reinforced polymer composites there has been a surge in the use of adhesives for joints and repairs, and polymer resins as the matrix material for fibre-reinforced composites. The failure mechanisms of these materials have been studied by many researchers; however, there is little accurate experimental data under tension-tension loading published. This is due to the lack of a standard specimen design to perform these tests. The authors propose a flat plate specimen design that has been shown to overcome some of the difficulties presented in literature. A series of tests with this specimen configuration were conducted under varying biaxial loading conditions. The results are plotted in the tension-tension quadrant of the materials failure envelope. For the two polymer materials tested; a linear truncation within the first quadrant of the failure envelope was found. 20 Refs.

Title: Non-isothermal moulding of composite products with impregnation of the porous layer
Page Range: p.639-646
Author(s): Baranov A V
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The non-isothermal filling of a flat mould cavity by a Newtonian fluid with simultaneous two-dimensional impregnation of the porous (reinforcing) layer is investigated. The flow in the cavity is described by inertialess Navier-Stokes equations, the flow in the porous layer by Darcy's law, and the flow in the region adjacent to the 'liquid-porous layer' boundary by the Brinkman equation. Viscosity is considered to be temperature dependent. The temperature fields in the channel region and in the permeable layer are interrelated by conjugate boundary conditions of the fourth kind. 23 Refs.

Title: Fabrication and application of low-pressure wax injection rapid toolings
Page Range: p.647-652
Author(s): Chil-Chyuan Kuo; Ren-Lung Tsai
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
This paper proposes a method to produce silicone rubber moulds for low-pressure wax injection moulding. Wax spilling is one of the most troublesome problems during the wax injection moulding process. From the point of view of green manufacturing, the optimal processing conditions in the wax injection moulding process were investigated using the Taguchi method. The experimental results revealed that the most influential factor affecting the weight of spilled wax is the injection time. The optimal processing conditions in the wax injection moulding process are an injection temperature of 82 deg C, an injection time of 2 s, an injection pressure of 0.6 kgf/ cm2 and a mould temperature of 60 deg C. 21 Refs.

Title: Utilization of chicken eggshell waste as a bio-filler for thermoplastic polymers: thermal and mechanical characterization of polypropylene filled with naturally derived CaCO3
Page Range: p.653-662
Author(s): Arabi Hassen A; Melike Dizbay-Onat; Dhruv Bansal; Bayush T; Uday Vaidya
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
The processing and characterisation of polypropylene/eggshell composites was the main objective of this study. Natural source-derived calcium carbonate (CaCO3) was extracted from waste chicken eggshell and compounded with polypropylene polymer. The compound was moulded using the Extrusion Compression Moulding (ECM) process. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis were conducted on the eggshell to characterise its constituents. The effects of filler loading, 30 wt.% eggshell and 30 wt.% eggshell with 5 wt.% of maleic anhydride grafted polypropylene (MAPP) on the mechanical and thermal properties were studied. The addition of a small amount of MAPP during melt extrusion improved the dispersion and bonding of CaCO3 particles in polypropylene. 7.49% decrease in tensile strength, 35.51% enhancement in flexural modulus and 66.05% increase in notched Izod impact energy were obtained by adding 30 wt.% eggshell with 5 wt.% MAPP to polypropylene. Adding 30-wt % of eggshell filler and 5 wt.% MAPP to polypropylene delayed the flame propagation time by 99 seconds. 21 Refs.

Title: A comparison of MAPE and PEG effects on the mechanical characteristics of wheat straw/LDPE biocomposites for packaging application
Page Range: p.663-668
Author(s): Behjat Tajeddin
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 23
Issue No: No.9

Abstract
A viable solution for replacing petroleum-based materials is to combine petroleum and bioresources materials to produce biocomposites having the requisite properties for packaging applications. Although biocomposites have many applications in different purposes such as building construction and aircraft industries, their applications in the packaging engineering are still novel. Therefore, in this study, a biocomposite consisting of low-density polyethylene (LDPE), wheat straw (WS) and the compatibilisers Maleic Anhydride Polyethylene (MAPE) and Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) with molecular weights of 400 and 600, was produced based on the requirements of the packaging industry. By performing different mechanical tests such as tensile, flexure and impact, the effects of the compatibilising agents was determined. The ratios of the matrix to the filling phase applied to the compound were 70/30, 60/40, 50/50, and 40/60, and the compatibilisers were used at the levels of 0, 7, and 10% respectively. The MAPE compatibiliser improved the tensile properties. The compatibiliser type had no effect on the impact strength properties of the biocomposites. The flexural strength of all compounds was higher than that of the control. 24 Refs.

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