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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: Effect of filler on the mechanical and dynamic properties of impact energy-absorbing materials
Page Range: p.1-6
Author(s): Frank M; Drdlova M; Vladan Prachar; Rybova V; Jaroslav Buchar
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Energy-absorbing materials represent an important group of products in the field of increasing the safety of citizens. Research and development including physical properties testing leads to improvement of these materials and protective constructions. Two types of fillers were chosen for testing: macro and microfillers, together with a two-component polyurethane binder. Different recipes of energy absorbing materials were tested and the resulting physico-mechanical properties, namely bulk density and flexural, compressive and impact strength, are listed in this article. Deformation curves were recorded during pressure loading of materials with macrofillers incorporated. Based on these curves, the rate and mode of energy absorption can be predicted. Most samples underwent the Split-Hopkinson pressure bar test which was the crucial method for the determination of impact energy absorption. 7 Refs.

Title: Effect of fiber volume fraction in fiber reinforcement compaction in resin injection pultrusion process
Page Range: p.7-20
Author(s): Shakya N S; Roux J A; Jeswani A L
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In the resin injection pultrusion process (RIP), the liquid resin is injected into the continuously pulled fibres through the injection slots to cause complete wetout of the fibres. As the resin penetrates through the fibres, the resin also pushes the fibres away from the wall causing compaction of the fibre reinforcements. When the fibres are squeezed together due to compaction, the resin penetration becomes more difficult; thus a resin injection pressure below a certain pressure cannot effectively penetrate through the fibres and achieve complete wetout. However, if the resin injection pressure is too high, the fibres are squeezed together to such an extent that the fibre becomes essentially impenetrable by the liquid resin. The harder it is to penetrate through the fibres, greater is the tendency of the fibres to be pushed away from the wall and cause compaction and affect wetout. In this study, the effect of fibre volume fraction on the fibre reinforcement compaction and the complete wetout is presented. 14 Refs.

Title: Effects of fluorinated silane coupling agent on properties of microcapsules for self-healing materials
Page Range: p.21-26
Author(s): Xiulan Cai; Datian Fu; Ailan Qu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Urea-formaldehyde (UF) microcapsules used as self-healing materials were facilely prepared by a sonication technique using epoxy resin (E-51) and UF resin as core and shell materials, respectively. Fluorinated silane coupling agent (KBM-7803) was used to modify the surface of the UF microcapsules. The as-prepared microcapsules were investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, which indicated the formation of UF polymer with successful encapsulation of the core materials in UF shell and effective absorption of KBM7803 on the surface of the microcapsules. Analysis of the mechanical properties revealed that the modification using KBM-7803 improved the tensile properties and decreased the elasticity of the microcapsules. The results of scanning electron microscopy illustrated that KBM-7803 modified microcapsules had thin shells, indicating that the microcapsules were capable of being ruptured easily which resulted in the effective release of the curing agent into the crack planes to form a polymer that bonded the crack faces and restored the structural continuity of the composite, leading to effective self-healing. 12 Refs.

Title: Organo-montmorillonite modified bismaleimide as matrix in carbon fibre-reinforced composites
Page Range: p.27-34
Author(s): Wei Li; Bao Quan Zhou; Huan Wei Zhao; Ming Yu Wang; Rong Ren
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Two types of organo-montmorillonite (OMMT) modified bismaleimide (BMI) nanocomposites based on 4,4'-bismaleimide diphenyl methane (BDM) and O,O'-diallyl bisphenol A (DBA) have been synthesised. A compression moulding process was used to fabricate carbon fibre-reinforced OMMT/BMI multiscale composites. X-ray diffractometry (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) indicated that the silicate layers of OMMT were partially exfoliated and dispersed uniformly in the nanocomposites. The study showed that the interlaminar shear strength (ILSS) and flexural properties of the carbon fibre composites were improved by the incorporation of OMMT. The maximum increment of the ILSS, flexural strength and elastic modulus of carbon fibre composites were 19.09%, 38.26% and 26.97%, respectively. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) photographs revealed that the destruction modes of carbon fibre composites were also changed after the OMMT was introduced into the composites system. 21 Refs.

Title: Mechanical behaviour of sorghum stalk rind reinforced maleic anhydride grafted polyethylene under different environmental conditions
Page Range: p.35-44
Author(s): Bahi Bakeer; Iman Taha; Hamed El-Mously
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
This work investigates the mechanical and service behaviour of high-density polyethylene composites reinforced by sorghum stalk rind (SSR) at various concentrations of fibres and maleic anhydride treated polyethylene (MAPE). Fibre length l and aspect ratio l/w distributions of compounded fibre composites show large numbers of smaller particles. Tensile and bending properties were investigated, taking the effects of some service conditions into consideration, such as water absorption and UV exposure. Untreated polyethylene reinforced with 40 wt.% SSR showed a maximum water uptake of 6.9 wt.%. Generally, reductions in strength and modulus were observed upon immersion in water. In contrast, UV radiation did not show any significant effect on mechanical properties at exposure times of up to 300 h. 21 Refs.

Title: Modeling of bond of sand-coated deformed glass fibre-reinforced polymer rebars in concrete
Page Range: p.45-56
Author(s): Weichen Xue; Yu Yang; Qiaowen Zheng; Zhiqing Fang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this paper, 30 beam tests, 48 Losberg pullout tests and 6 standard pullout tests were conducted to investigate bond-slip response of sand-coated deformed glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) rebars in concrete. The specimen parameters varied were concrete strength, embedment length, bar diameter and test method. Two failure modes including pullout failure and splitting failure were observed. The experimental bond stress-slip (((s) curves of sand-coated deformed GFRP rebars in concrete in pullout failure included a micro-slippage branch, a slippage branch, a descending branch and a residual branch, while the bbs curves in splitting failure included a micro-slippage branch and a slippage branch. Based on the tests, a new bond-slip constitutive model for sand-coated deformed GFRP rebars in concrete was presented. Compared with other available models, the model proposed in this paper can provide more reliable simulations of the test results. 27 Refs.

Title: Electromagnetic interference shielding effectiveness and electrical conductivity of Ni coated PCABS/PPS composites with reinforcement of carbon fibre
Page Range: p.57-64
Author(s): Sunitha J N; Rajesh C S; Rai S K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this study, the EMI shielding effectiveness and electrical conductivity of nickel-coated Polycarbonate Acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene (PCABS)/Polyphenylene Sulphide (PPS) graphitic composites with reinforcement by carbon fibre were investigated. Pulverised PCABS and PPS powder particles were coated with nickel using the electroless deposition technique. Electron microscopy evidenced the uniform nickel deposition on PCABS and PPS powder particles. The conductive composites were prepared with various amounts of nickel-coated PCABS/ PPS, carbon fibre (CF) and graphite in order to increase the electrical conductivity of the matrix. Composites were found to have excellent electrical conductivities of 12 S/cm and 19 S/cm, and electromagnetic interference (EMI) shielding effectiveness of 79 dB and 87 dB respectively. Tensile strengths at break were decreased by filler addition, and both tensile and flexural moduli were increased. The resulting conductive composites could be used in applications where metals have typically been the materials of choice. 41 Refs.

Title: Effect of process variables on the tensile properties of fibreglass nonwoven composites
Page Range: p.65-70
Author(s): Sheraz Hussain Siddique Yousfani; Gong R H; Porat I
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Fibreglass nonwoven composites are a new class of fibre-reinforced composites, and in this work composite samples were manufactured by using nonwoven webs as reinforcement and thermo-setting resin as matrix. The samples were prepared by using a resin infusion technique, and the nonwoven webs were manufactured by a wet-laying method. In this research work, the main purpose was to investigate the effects of different process variables, i.e. dispersion, fibre length and multiple layering, on the tensile properties of these composites. It was found that the tensile strength was improved by better dispersion of fibre strands. Tensile strength and stiffness of the composite samples were also improved by an increase in fibre length and by multiple layering. 14 Refs.

Title: PMMA denture base composites reinforced by nitrile rubber and ceramic fillers
Page Range: p.71-80
Author(s): Alhareb A O; Hazizan Akil; Zainal Arafin Ahmad
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) denture base composites were fabricated by incorporating nitrile butadiene rubber (NBR) particles and ceramic fillers (Al2O3, YSZ, and SiO2). PMMA powder was mixed with liquid methyl methacrylate (MMA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as crosslinking agents. The different types of ceramic fillers were fixed at 5 wt.% and NBR particles in proportions of 5, 7.5 and 10 wt.%, respectively, mixed with PMMA. The impact strength (IS) increased and the fracture toughness (KIC) decreased with the increase of NBR content in PMMA matrix. The composites with Al2O3 showed better IS and KIC when compared to YSZ and SiO2 particles. It has been demonstrated that the combination of 10 wt.% NBR/5 wt.% Al2O3 produced the optimum density (1.049 g/cm3), IS (7.41 KJ/m2), KIC (2.45 MPa.m1/2) and statistically the values was significantly increased (p < 0.05). 44 Refs.

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