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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: Polymer sheet hot incremental forming - an innovative polymer forming approach
Page Range: p.447-454
Author(s): Sridhar R; Rajenthirakumar D
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Polymers are currently used as raw materials in automobile and house hold applications. Particularly in automobile parts polymers having significant percentage, because of its strength to weight ratio. But their conventional processing of heating- melting -injecting and solidifying process cycle is mainly suitable for high volume mass production1. Increasing demands for the products with low volume, best quality, less production lead time are impart the need for a new polymer processing method. This can be capable of fulfilling the current industrial requirement of agile manufacturing processing methods with short span for life cycle of parts and short design to production lead time. This paper is mainly focused on problems in conventional polymer processing and proves the opportunity to use single point incremental forming technology which is currently used for sheet metal forming applications. This method reduces and eliminates capital investment on special dies and tools. It is a highly flexible forming process and is enabled with the help of computer numerical control (CNC) technology2. In this work, a novel process namely hot incremental polymer forming (HIPF) is developed. In this process the material is heated with the help of heating element up to the required temperature and the hemispherical tool moves over the hot sheet, the tool path is controlled by CNC technology. This innovative process starts with development of low cost fixture and spherical tool, heating coil, temperature measurement device, feedback element and temperature controller. A truncated hexagonal pyramid shape is used to study the process capability regarding the geometrical accuracy and sheet thinning of the produced part. Results show that this method capable of forming polymer sheet parts at elevated temperature with good dimensional accuracy and better formability. 16 Refs.

Title: Evaluation of mechanical properties of synthetic fiber reinforced polymer composites by mixture design analysis
Page Range: p.455-462
Author(s): Manikandan A; Rajkumar R
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
The objective of this work is to investigate the mechanical properties of Glass fibre reinforced Epoxy composites with different weight proportions. Using hand lay-up technique followed by compression moulding, five composites were prepared by varying the Glass fibre from 15 wt.% to 35 wt.%. The necessary mechanical tests were conducted as per ASTM standards and surface morphology of the fractured surfaces was examined by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). As per the obtained results, it is concluded that the 25 wt.% fibre loaded composite has superior mechanical properties. The results are mathematically evaluated by adopting Mixture Design optimisation technique. The predicted values establish that 25 wt.% fibre loading shows good mechanical properties compared to other combinations. 20 Refs.

Title: Modeling and analysis of clutch facing made up of biodegradable coir fibre based composite material
Page Range: p.463-468
Author(s): Arunachalam K; Sundara Pandian G
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In past hundred years almost all components of automobile have undergone improvement due to technological advancement. Automobile sector is one of the major environment polluting sectors today. It is duty of automobile engineers to provide new and better solutions to ensure environment protection and safety. Availability of new environment-friendly composite materials helps automobile engineers to give environmental friendly solutions. One of such available new material is biodegradable natural fibre composite materials particularly coconut coir fibre based composite material. Scope of using this material in automotive industry is enormous. This paper deals with feasibility of using environment friendly coconut coir based composite material as clutch facing material. This has been done by modelling and analysis of clutch facings made up of structural steel and coir based composite material using Solid Works software and ANSYS Workbench respectively. Further comparison of mechanical properties of clutch facings made up of structural steel and coir based composite material has been done. 15 Refs.

Title: Evaluation of glass/ carbon reinforced polymer composites
Page Range: p.469-472
Author(s): Vinay H B; Govindaraju H K; Prashanth Banakar
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Polymer composites are used in various applications because of its universal properties. In the present investigation the vinyl ester matrix composites were developed with glass fibre and carbon fibre as reinforcements. The composites were manufactured by using hand layup process and the tests were conducted as per ASTM testing standards. The inter laminar shear strength and impact strength of carbon reinforced composites have improved when compared with glass fibre reinforced composites. Whereas glass fibre reinforced composites have shown better shore-D hardness. 11 Refs.

Title: Studies on the morphology, cure characteristics and mechanical properties of acrylonitrile butadiene rubber with hybrid filler (carbon black / silica) composite
Page Range: p.473-480
Author(s): Senthilvel K; Vishvanathperumal S; Prabu B; John Baruch L
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Carbon black (CB) and silica are the common reinforcing fillers that increase the usefulness of rubbers. In this work the effect of CB/silica hybrid fillers on the physico-mechanical properties of nitrile rubber was investigated. The total hybrid filler is kept constant at 50 phr (parts per hundred rubber) and silica content in the hybrid filler is varied as 0, 10, 20, 25, 30, 40 and 50 phr. Totally seven different combination of composite samples are prepared using two roll mill. Cure characteristics and physico-mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compressive strength, tear strength, elongation at break, 100%, 200% and 300% tensile modulus, abrasion resistance, hardness, compression set and rebound resilience are studied experimentally. Results showed that cure time t90, Scorch time ts2, minimum torque (ML), and maximum torque (MH) of CB/Sil hybrid increased as silica content increased. The crosslink density of rubber hybrid composites has been determined from this stress strain curve using analytical method and ANSYS software. From the experimental results, it is found that all the properties studied except elongation at break, compression set, rebound resilience and abrasion resistance decreases with increase in silica content in hybrid filler as the silica content makes the composites less stiff. 19 Refs.

Title: Experimental study on structural characterization of biocomposites
Page Range: p.481-488
Author(s): Murali K; Vigneshwaran T; Johnson G L J; Karthikeyan G; Suthan C
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
There is an exceptional period of growth in the use of composites over the past decades in the aviation industry. Petroleum based synthetic composites have several properties that make them the choice for various applications. Also it possesses good mechanical strength, chemical properties easy process ability, permanent stability, low price, and anti-bacterial properties. These composites are resistant to microbial attack and non degradable. The nonbiodegradability of most commercially available plastics has caused many environmental problems associated with their disposal. A consequence of this phenomenal use of plastic materials is their increasing presence in municipal solid waste throw-away products. Increasing environmental concern forces for the use of newer type of materials which is more eco-friendly. Hence the bio-composite concept is developed. Bio composites are made from the natural fibres and are eco-friendly. Both the matrix phase and reinforcing phase are made by the natural fibres. Their properties can be improved by modifying their structure and by adding additives. This project aims in developing the new type of bio composite using Coir, Aloe vera, Banana fibre, Bagasse, Kenaf and then subjecting it to various tests to determine its properties and proving its promising usage in the aviation field. 16 Refs.

Title: Incremental forming of polymer-numerical and experimental investigation
Page Range: p.489-498
Author(s): Sridhar R; Rajenthirakumar D
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In current competitive market every day a new design and manufacturing concept is evolved in polymer processing technology. The industries to cater the need of customers, apart from conventional polymer part manufacturing processes they are in need to develop new manufacturing techniques. This necessitates the need for new flexible polymer processing method that reduces design and manufacturing lead time. Research is on to develop new innovative process strategies and methods in the area of polymer processing. Such one technology is incremental forming (IF) of polymers. In this incremental polymer sheet forming process there is no need to develop dedicated dies and moulds. As a result high investment on moulds and dies was totally eliminated. It is a very much flexible part forming process and is enabled with the help of Computer Numerical Control (CNC) technology. In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations are carried out for the applicability of Incremental forming in polymer part manufacturing. A Finite Element (FE) model is developed for the 3-D numerical simulation of incremental forming process of polymers using commercial software HYPERFORM. The developed model can predict the thickness distribution and percentage thinning of the blank. The FEA results and experimental results are compared for validation with the part design parameters (geometrical and physical parameters). Furthermore, this numerical simulation predicts the failure of polymers in IF process and it is verified with experimental results. By this numerical simulation, failure prediction can be done without expensive shop trials. 14 Refs.

Title: Optimization of process parameters in micro-drilling of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP) using taguchi and grey relational analysis
Page Range: p.499-506
Author(s): Shunmugesh K; Panneerselvam K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) are said to be an excellent replacement for conventional materials with high strength and modulus and are widely used in aircraft, automobiles, infrastructures, 3D printing etc. In this micro-drilling experimental study, through holes are drilled on a CFRP laminates of 2 mm thick using conventional HSS drill bit of three different diameters (0.7, 0.8 and 0.9 mm). The Taguchi's L27(313) orthogonal array experimental design with smaller-the-better characteristics are selected as the input to the Grey relational analysis (GRA) to simultaneously minimise the delamination factor, circularity and cylindricity. The effect and contribution of the process parameters namely, spindle speed and feed rate are determined using analysis of variance (ANOVA). The correlation of process parameter and the responses are established using response surface methodology (RSM). The analysis of the results reveals that feed rate and spindle speed combination significantly affects the multiple response characteristics. 16 Refs.

Title: Vibration analysis of nanoclay filled natural fiber composites
Page Range: p.507-516
Author(s): Arulmurugan S; Venkateshwaran N
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In this work, the exfoliation of nanoclay in the polyester matrix was investigated using Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) to evaluate the optimum parameters (frequency and time) in ultra-sonication technique. Various weight percent (1, 3, 5 and 7) of nanoclay is then mixed with polyester resin at optimum parameters. The mechanical properties and free vibration characteristics are investigated to determine the optimum clay percentage in the matrix. Further, with the optimum clay weight percentage, jute fibres of various weight percentages (5, 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30) were used to prepare the composite. The tensile, flexural, impact and free vibration characteristic of composite are found as per ASTM standards. From the results, it is found that 5% addition of nanoclay and 15% jute fibre increases the mechanical and vibration behaviour of the composites. Experimental modal analysis was carried out on a cantilever beam-like sample revealed that the addition of nanoclay and fibre has enhanced natural frequencies and damping ratio and the obtained natural frequencies are in good agreement with the theoretical results. 20 Refs.

Title: Fatigue life extension of riveted joints using fiber metal laminate reinforcement
Page Range: p.517-522
Author(s): Kiran Babu K M; Sendhil Kumar S
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
The components and parts made of sheet metals are commonly used in the automotive industry. Most of the sheet metal joints are bonded together using riveted joints. Stresses induced into these joints during usage may lead to assembly failure. In this paper, the mechanical and fatigue characterisation of the riveted joints reinforced using fibre metal laminate (FML) is carried out. The tensile testing and fatigue testing of the specimens are carried out subsequently and the results illustrate that due to the presence of reinforcement between the riveted joints the overall mechanical strength and fatigue life of the riveted joints is improved by 19% and 21% respectively. 12 Refs.

Title: Multi objective optimization using taguchi grey relational analysis (GRA) for CNC turning of poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) polymer
Page Range: p.523-528
Author(s): Jogi B F; Monish Tarekar; Dhajekar R M; Raju Pawade
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
The paper attempts to implement the multi objective optimisation methodology for poly-ether-ether-ketone (PEEK) polymer by using CNC turning machine. For the same, Taguchi based L18 experiments were carried out on CNC turning lathe using TiC and TiN coated carbide inserts. Further, the process performance is measured in terms of cutting forces and surface roughness. The optimised machining parameters were determined using Grey Relational Analysis (GRA). The analysis of results shows that cutting speed: 377 m/min, feed rate: 0.05 mm/rev, depth of cut: 2 mm and TiC insert exhibits better results. 12 Refs.

Title: Free vibration analysis of laminated composite plates using finite element method
Page Range: p.529-538
Author(s): Pushparaj Pingulkar; Suresha B
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In this work, the natural frequencies and mode shapes of a number of cantilever glass fibre reinforced polymer composites (GFRPCs) and carbon fibre reinforced polymer composites (CFRPCs) are numerically obtained using the commercial finite element analysis software (ANSYS). The laminates under study include 8 ply cantilevered plates having a plate aspect ratio of 2 and fibre volume fractions of 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, and 0.6. The finite element analysis procedure is described. The natural frequencies and mode shapes calculated using ANSYS are first validated with the results obtained from previous literature. The agreement between the two results is found to be excellent. The effect of change in the matrix material, hybridisation, and laminate stacking sequence on the natural frequencies and mode shapes are also investigated. It is found that hybridisation and orientation of the outermost layer has more significant influence on the natural frequencies of the laminated composite plates compared to fibre volume fraction and change in the matrix material. 19 Refs.

Title: Empirical modeling and experimental investigation of the amine treated nanoclay reinforced epoxy-polyurethane blended resin composites
Page Range: p.539-546
Author(s): Athimoolam M; Moorthy T V; Sureshbabu A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Mechanical properties of nanoclay filled epoxy-polyurethane blended resins were experimentally investigated as they are proved to be very good materials for shape memory applications such as actuators, water and oil pipelines and aircrafts components like bearings, valve seat and floor etc. The mechanical properties such as tensile strength, compressive strength, flexural strength, shear strength etc. are become poor when the shape memory properties such as strain rate, strain recovery rate and strain fixidity ratio are good in polyurethane based nanocomposites. Therefore, polyurethane blended with epoxy is prepared as it is exhibiting interpenetrating network and the nanoclay is reinforced to improve the mechanical as well as functional properties. Therefore, there is absolute necessity for process modelling and parameter modelling of these materials in order to arrive at the optimum composition to have better mechanical properties. Mathematical modelling and empirical modelling are the effective ways for cost reduction methodology and stepping-stone to do optimisation of the process parameters and properties of the materials developed. This paper initially analyses glass transition temperature and degradation temperatures by Differential Scanning Calorimetry. Then the different empirical model results are discussed for the selecting a suitable model and a simplified approach to analyse the mechanical properties of randomly distributed particulate composites. Finally, the analytical results are compared with tensile test results to identify the model, which gives good correlations. Further, the experimental results and the theoretical calculations using the empirical models showed that the strength of the composites is closer to the strength of the weaker constituent matrix material, for all the composites tested and shows improvement over the unblended polyurethane based composites. Also improvement in the thermal properties is also evidenced from the test results. 17 Refs.

Title: Viability study of use of reprocessed high density polyethylene for manufacturing products and multi response optimization of injection moulding parameters using grey relational analysis
Page Range: p.547-554
Author(s): Gobinath S; Elangovan D; Sivakumar E; Devadasan S R
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In landfill, it was found that the majority of the plastic items are not biodegradable and very gradually degrade. With reprocessed consumer plastics, many attempts have been made to reduce the impact on the environment and to avoid the consumption of virgin plastics. The plastic blend of 50% reprocessed high density polyethylene (HDPE) and 50% virgin HDPE has been used purposely for this study. Usability of reprocessed HDPE as alternative for virgin HDPE is investigated. This paper investigates the influence of the process parameters melt temperature, holding pressure, and cooling time on tensile strength and flexural strength through Taguchi methodology and grey relational analysis in Injection moulding machine. Multi response characteristics like tensile and flexural strengths are selected to evaluate the process performance and the corresponding moulding parameters of the melt temperature, holding pressure, and cooling time. Optimal combination of injection moulding parameters is determined using Taguchi and Grey relational analysis. Tensile and flexural strengths of the reprocessed HDPE are found close to that of virgin HDPE. Hence, reprocessed HDPE is found a good alternative for virgin HDPE. The confirmation results reveal that, there is significant progress in tensile strength and flexural strength of reprocessed HDPE and Grey relational grade are improved by 6%, 5% and 74% respectively. Optimal combination of the process parameters for the multi-performance characteristics of the reprocessed HDPE is the set with melting temperature at 235 0C, holding pressure at 250 N/m2 and cooling time at 25 s. 20 Refs.

Title: Effect of pretreatment methods on properties of natural fiber composites: a review
Page Range: p.555-566
Author(s): Venkatachalam N; Navaneethakrishnan P; Rajsekar R; Shankar S
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
India as a tropical agricultural country has great potential to develop and use fibre derived from agricultural waste. Natural fibres are an important by-product of extraction process and they can be used as reinforcement in composite products. Composites are developed with unsaturated polyester resin as the matrix with natural fibre as the reinforcement. The results show decreased strength and modulus with increasing the fibre volume fraction. This indicates ineffective stress transfer between the fibre and matrix due to lower adhesion. It is necessary to bring a hydrophobic nature to the fibres by suitable chemical treatments in order to develop composites with improved mechanical properties. In these review papers, different types of natural fibres are subjected to a variety of physical and chemical treatments. The types of treatments studied in these papers include Physical treatments such as beating and heating, and chemical treatments like alkalization, silane, acetylation and benzoylation. The effects of these treatments on mechanical properties of the composites are analysed. Fractures are analysed by using the scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Analysis by FTIR and DMA showed that physico-chemical changes of surfaces of treated natural fibres. In general, treatments to the fibres can significantly improve adhesion and reduce water absorption, thereby improving mechanical properties of the composites. The purpose of this review paper is to summarise the research work done on various pretreatments in the preparation of natural fibre reinforced composites and to highlight the potential use of natural fibre reinforced polymer composites in industry and its potential to replace the synthetic fibre composite and conventional materials in the future. 76 Refs.

Title: The effect of higher order model on the geometric nonlinear analysis of antisymmetric angle ply laminates
Page Range: p.567-572
Author(s): Swaminathan K; Sangeetha D M
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Geometric nonlinear analysis of simply supported antisymmetric angle-ply laminated composite plates are investigated based on first order and higher order displacement models with five degrees of freedom. Analytical formulations and solutions are developed based on Von-Karman nonlinear plate theory and Taylor's series expansion of displacement components. Equations of equilibrium are obtained using Principle of Minimum Potential Energy (PMPE) and closed form solutions using Navier's Solution technique. A four layered square plate is considered for the present study. Parametric studies are performed on both the models to study the behaviour of displacements and stresses in laminated composite plates. Comparative studies are performed on both the models and the effect of geometric nonlinearity is discussed. 12 Refs.

Title: Punching of slag based concrete incorporating polymeric and nonpolymeric fibres
Page Range: p.573-578
Author(s): Vikram J; Sekar K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In recent years, many studies were made on the punching resistance of concrete slab incorporated with reinforcements. In a reinforced concrete slab, the ultimate strength is always governed by its punching shear capacity. Generally this shear capacity is increased by steel reinforcement. In addition to the steel reinforcement, incorporating fibres will enhance its shear capacity thereby increasing the ultimate strength. It is also been justified that application of fibre to increase punching shear capacity will be a viable solution. In this study, a conceptual mix of concrete was arrived based on three phase particle interaction. Based on the packing density evaluation 50% of cement is replaced with slag. This mix is incorporated with hybrid fibres such as polymeric fibres (polypropylene) and non-polymeric fibres (steel) in different aspect ratios. The test results shows that all the hybrid concrete mixes records a better result than the control concrete mix without fibre addition. The periphery and mid deflection is also measured and found to be relatively linear. 21 Refs.

Title: Progressive damage of GFRP composite plate under ballistic impact: experimental and numerical study
Page Range: p.579-586
Author(s): Muslim Ansari; Anupam Chakrabarti
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
In this paper, the behaviour of laminated GFRP composite plate under ballistic impact has been studied with experimental as well as numerical model. Variation of residual velocity, energy absorption, damaged area and modes of damages have been studied. A simplified three dimensional FE model for composite plate and impactor with gap interaction and Lagrangian mesh has been presented. Material characterisation of GFRP composite for progressive damage analysis based on material stress/strain failure criteria has been carried out. Shock effect with nonlinear volumetric response of laminated composite during impact is also considered. Pressure wave propagation in composite plate due to impact is also studied. Numerical results from present FE model are validated with those of experimental results showing close agreements in terms of damaged length, energy absorption and variation of residual velocities. 14 Refs.

Title: Modified frosch crack width model for concrete beams prestressed with CFRP bars
Page Range: p.587-596
Author(s): Selvachandran P; Anandakumar S; Muthuramu K L
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 24
Issue No: No.7

Abstract
Fibre-reinforced polymer (FRP) composites are preferred as prestressing tendons in concrete structures due to its high-strength, lightweight and non-corrosive property. FRP based prestressed concrete member exhibits different crack behaviour than steel based prestressed concrete member due to its less stiffness and non-ductile property. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the cracking behaviour of concrete member using Carbon fibre reinforced polymer (CFRP) bars as prestressing material. Experimental works includes four numbers of prestressed concrete specimens by varying degree of prestressing of 35 to 70%. The characteristics of crack spacing, crack propagation and crack widths of member were presented. Experimental results were compared with various researchers' recommendation and proposed a new crack width model by modifying the Frosch crack width model. 15 Refs.

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