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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: Optimization of machining process parameters in drilling of CFRP using multi-objective Taguchi technique, TOPSIS and RSA techniques
Page Range: p.185-192
Author(s): Shunmugesh K; Panneerselvam K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) are widely used in many engineering applications as replacement for various other elements to make use of the advantage of its high strength-weight ratio, durability and high corrosion resistance. The paper herein is an attempt to evaluate the drilling characteristics of CFRP by means of three different drill bit types (HSS, TiAlN and TiN) using Taguchi L27 (313) orthogonal array under dry condition. Firstly, the machining process parameters (cutting speed and feed rate) are optimised with multiple performance characteristics using Multi-objective Taguchi technique and TOPSIS. Secondly, mathematical model is developed to correlate the machining process parameters and the performance characteristics (surface roughness, circularity and cylindricity) using response surface analysis. ANOVA is used to validate the developed mathematical model of the responses. The investigation reveals that the results of TOPSIS technique are in good agreement with the multi-objective Taguchi technique and also feed rate is the most predominant factor which affects the responses. 10 Refs.

Title: Dry slide wear behavior of graphite and SiC, TiO2 filled the unidirectional glass-epoxy composites
Page Range: p.193-198
Author(s): Madhanagopal A; Gopalakannan S
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
This study determines the friction and the wear properties of the unidirectional glass epoxy composite with Gr, SiC TiO2 powder by using pin on disk apparatus. This tribological data is obtained in dry sliding condition for a constant sliding time of 30 minutes. Test specimens are prepared using hand lay-up process and by varying the different (2, 5, 7) percentage each of graphite and SiC, TiO2 particles addition for the combination of fibre and matrix. The tests are performed by varying the operating parameters of contact pressure (p) and velocity (v). The composites (2% 5%, and 7%) are worn by dry sliding at the steel counter face under ambient conditions. The coefficient of friction reaches maximum of 0.78 at 2 kg load, 2 m/s velocity with testing time duration of 24 min. whereas 5%, 7% sample shows the coefficient of friction 0.28, 0.25 respectively. The specific wear rate value drops to 0.79 (mm3/N-mx10-6) at 2 kg load at 2 m/s velocity for the 5% specimen. The maximum reduction in the specific wear rate at 3 kg load, 1m/s velocity is 32.7 percentages, 5.63 percentages for the 5,7 percentage specimen compared to 2% specimen for the graphite and SiC, TiO2 particle filled composite specimen respectively. The SEM images are also taken to support the results. 22 Refs.

Title: Comparative study of high performance polymers in selective inhibition sintering process through finite element analysis
Page Range: p.199-202
Author(s): Aravind A; Siddiqui T N; Arunkumar P; Balasubramanian E
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Selective Inhibition Sintering (SIS) is a novel additive manufacturing process which uses indigenously available polymers and the high cost laser system is avoided that makes the system cost-effective. Finite Element Analysis (FEA) is carried out to evaluate the performance of SIS process. The effect of temperature on the polymer structure is examined through coupled field transient thermo-structural analysis of various high performance polymer particles such as Polysulphone (PSU), Polybenzimidazole (PBI), Polyimide (PI), Polyethersulphone (PES), Perfluoroalkoxy alkanes (PFA), Ethylene tetrafluoroethylene (ETFE) and KCl is used as the inhibitor material. The structured finite element mesh model is created and heat flux is applied in equivalent time intervals to study the transient characteristics. Simulation results are presented with displacement, temperature and thermal stress for each polymer materials and their characteristics performance is evaluated. 15 Refs.

Title: Mechanical behaviour of aluminium alloy reinforced with SiC/fly ash/basalt composite for brake rotor
Page Range: p.203-208
Author(s): Venkatachalam G; Kumaravel A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Gray cast iron is the most commonly used material in automobile brake rotors. It generates heat easily during braking which affects its mechanical properties and the Coefficient of friction varies depending on the type of material used for the brake rotor. Aluminium (Al) based metal matrix composite can be an efficient and effective braking material compared to cast iron and matrix alloy. In the present investigation, Al6082 composites were fabricated by stir casting method by varying weight percentage of reinforcements for Sample 1 (Al 90% + SiC 10%), Sample 2 (Al 90% + SiC 5% + fly ash 5%) and Sample 3 (Al 90% + SiC 5% + basalt 5%). Chemical compositions, micro hardness, wear test and tensile test were performed to study the mechanical behaviour of all the test specimens. The surface morphology was studied using microscopic inspection to indicate the distribution of reinforcement particles and bonding between the matrixes. Composites containing hard oxides (like SiC) are preferred for high wear resistance along with increased hardness and high temperature oxidation resistance. The result reveals that wear rates of the composite materials is lower than that of the matrix alloy and friction coefficient was minimum. Also, it improves the micro hardness and tensile strength. The addition of fly ash and basalt decreases the wear and it acquired density almost three times lower than that of gray cast iron. In this investigation, the alternate materials for automobile brake rotors with Al reinforced composites were studied. 15 Refs.

Title: Fabrication and characterization of A356-basalt ash-fly ash composites processed by stir casting method
Page Range: p.209-214
Author(s): Venkatachalam G; Kumaravel A
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
This paper presents the characterisation of A356 composite reinforced with fly ash and basalt ash produced by stir casting method. Aluminium metal matrix composites (AMC) are used in wide variety of applications such as structural, aerospace, marine, automotive etc. Stir casting is cost effective manufacturing process and it is useful to enhance the attractive properties of AMCs. Three sets of hybrid AMC are prepared by varying the weight fraction of the reinforcements (3% basalt + 7% fly ash, 5% basalt + 5% fly, 7% basalt + 3% fly ash). The effect of reinforcements on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites such as hardness, tensile, compressive and impact strength were studied. The obtained results reveal that tensile, compressive and impact strength was increased when weight fraction of fly ash increased, whereas the hardness increases when weight fraction of the basalt ash increased. Microscopic study reveals the dispersion of the reinforcements in the matrix. 14 Refs.

Title: Tribological Behavior of short sisal fiber reinforced epoxy composite
Page Range: p.215-220
Author(s): Hari Om Maurya; Kanishka Jha; Tyagi Y K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Environment is being polluted day by day due to intensive use of synthetic fibre as reinforcement for polymer composite. The researchers, engineers and scientists are showing their interest in natural fibre as reinforcement in place of synthetic fibre due to its green nature. In this work, short sisal fibre reinforced epoxy composites were manufactured by hand lay-up method at 30% wt. of fibre loading and fibre length used was 10 mm. The parameters taken were load, speed and sliding distance. Load was taken as 10, 15, 20, 25 and 30 N, Sliding speed as 1 m/s, 2 m/s and 3 m/s and Sliding distance as 1000 m, 2000 m and 3000 m. The wear properties (specific wear rate and coefficient of friction) of prepared composites are carried out. All tests are performed as per ASTM standard. On increasing the load, sliding velocity and sliding distance, the specific wear rate is found to increase whereas value of coefficient of friction decrease. 21 Refs.

Title: An experimentation of chemical and mechanical behaviour of epoxy-sisal reinforced composites
Page Range: p.221-224
Author(s): Yuvaraj G; Hemanth Kumar; Saravanan G
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
In this work the variation of mechanical properties like tensile, impact and chemical resistance properties of randomly oriented sisal/glass fibre reinforced hybrid composites with different fibre ratios (50:50,45:55,40:60,30:70) was studied. Hand lay up method is used for making the composites with epoxy resin. The result shows that increase in chemical, impact properties of composites with increase in fibre loading. Also it was observed that significant improvement in tensile properties of hybrid composites by alkali treatment. 15 Refs.

Title: The effect of fiber loading on the mechanical behaviour of carbonaramid hybrid composites
Page Range: p.225-228
Author(s): Genuvin Cyriac; Bins Paul; Akhil K T; Shunmugesh K
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
In this emerging world the importance of the research on the material science is increasing because of its wide application in the field of aerospace industry, automotive industry, medical fields, military applications etc.. The hybrid composites give a balanced mechanical properties when compared to conventional composites. Epoxy composites having a different percentage composition of carbon-aramid hybrid fibres are fabricated by vacuum assisted resin transfer moulding. The improvements in the mechanical properties at different composition of carbon aramid hybrid fibres are studied. 30, 35, and 45 are the percentage composition of carbon-aramid hybrid fibres which are used in order to study the variation in the mechanical properties such as tensile strength and hardness. 8 Refs.

Title: Experimental investigation on volume fraction of mechanical and physical properties of flax and bamboo fibers reinforced hybrid epoxy composites
Page Range: p.229-236
Author(s): Sathish S; Kumaresan K; Prabhu L; Vigneshkumar N
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
The aim of this paper is to study the effect of volume fraction on mechanical and physical properties such as tensile, flexural, impact, interlaminar shear strength, void content and water absorption of flax and bamboo fibres reinforced hybrid epoxy composites. Flax and bamboo fibres reinforced epoxy resin matrix hybrid composites have been fabricated by compression moulding techniques. The hybrid composites were fabricated with different volume fraction of fibres. SEM analysis on the hybrid composite materials was performed to analyse the bonding behaviour of materials and internal structure of the fractured surfaces. The effect of chemical treatment of flax and bamboo fibres was verified by FTIR analysis. The results showed that the tensile, impact, flexural and ILSS are maximum for 40:0 (flax: bamboo) hybrid composites. The void content decreased for 20:20 (flax:bamboo) composites due to tightly packed flax fibre and more compatibility towards epoxy resin. 9 Refs.

Title: The effect of fibers loading on the mechanical properties of carbon epoxy composite
Page Range: p.237-240
Author(s): Blaise Solomon; George D; Shunmugesh K; Akhil K T
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Carbon fibre reinforced epoxy composites are having greater acceptance in industries as well as for researches and engineers due to the inherent properties. In this paper the change in mechanical properties like tensile strength and hardness are studied by changing the percentage composition of carbon by 30%, 35%and 45% in the carbon epoxy composite. Composite is manufactured by vacuum suction method. 9 Refs.

Title: Synthesis of chitosan-polyvinyl alcohol copolymers for smart drug delivery application
Page Range: p.241-246
Author(s): Neha Mulchandani; Nimish Shah; Tejal Mehta
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 25
Issue No: No.3

Abstract
Chitosan is a natural polymer obtained from exoskeletons of crustaceans and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) is a synthetic polymer which has excellent film forming ability along with non-toxic nature. The current work focuses on synthesising a smart polymer by copolymerisation of natural and synthetic polymers and exploring its applications in drug delivery. The copolymers were blended in different ratios and were synthesised using ammonium ceric nitrate as initiator and glutaraldehyde as a crosslinking agent which were converted to films by casting method. Amoxicillin, as a model drug was incorporated to the copolymerised films to study the invitro drug release. The films obtained were evaluated by varying the pH to study the pH responsive nature of films. Drug release studies were performed to obtain the release profile of drug; water uptake capacity of the copolymerised film were measured to determine the swelling behaviour of the films. The films were further characterised using Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC) to identify the structural and morphological changes along with thermal transitions. The results indicate that the synthesised copolymers are pH responsive in nature having great potential for application in controlled and targeted drug delivery. 17 Refs.

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