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Polymers and Polymer Composites

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Title: Reliability design and optimization process on through mold via using ultrafast laser
Page Range: p.1-8
Author(s): Hsiang-Chen Hsu; Shih-Jeh Wu; Wen-Fei Lin; Boen Houng
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this study, a through mould via (TMV) process using ultrafast Laser has been developed for the interconnection on 3D package-on-package (PoP) application. Epoxy moulding compound (EMC) is a composite material consisted of epoxy resin, filler particles (fused silica) and other constituents. Among these chemical compositions, the size and spatial distribution of fillers on the EMC dominate the sidewall quality on drilled trench. However, random filler leakage on the sidewall leads to an irregular and uneven trench and these drop out fillers become a problem needed to be solved. Faster removal of debris can be achieved by controlling the laser drilling parameters. Parametric studies have been performed to determine the specification of trench and design rule of material. The optimal desmear process on TMV bottom PoP package developed in this study demonstrates the reliability improvement on follow-up sputtering or filling process. 12 refs.

Title: Direct and flexural shear strength of composite beam with perforbond rib
Page Range: p.9-18
Author(s): Dooyong Cho; Jinwoong Choi; Hoseong Jeong
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
When Perfobond Rib shear connectors are used as flexural materials in structures such as bridges, they show flexural shear behaviour due to external force, rather than direct shear behaviour. The aim of this study is thus to analyse the difference between both behaviours. First, we prepared a specimen to analyse direct shear behaviour using Perfobond Rib shear connectors, analysed the characteristics of behaviour with a push-out test and proposed a formula of shear resistance assessment. Proposed formula shows a relatively good fit with less than 10% error. A flexural shear test was then conducted based on the result of the direct shear test. Based on the static flexural test it analysed the flexural behaviour and the flexural shear stress it calculated. Direct shear stress and EN 1994-1-1 to lead and be calculated, it compared the flexural shear stress and it analysed in about the shear resistance stress which it follows in load direction. Finally, we compared both test results, and the comparison showed that the flexural shear stress is approximately 6% stronger than the direct shear stress. 11 refs.

Title: A study of cutting temperatures in turning carbon-fiber-reinforced-plastic (CRFP) composites with nose radius worn tools
Page Range: p.19-26
Author(s): Chung-Shin Chang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Nine kinds of carbide nose radius worn tools were used in turning of high-strength carbon-fibre reinforced plastics (CFRP) materials to study the cutting temperature of tip's surface. A new cutting temperature model using the variations of shear and friction plane areas occurring in tool nose wear situations are presented in this paper. The frictional forces and heat generated in the cutting process are calculated by using the measured cutting forces and the theoretical cutting analysis. The heat partition factor between the tip and chip is solved by using the inverse heat transfer analysis, which utilises temperature on the K type carbide tip's surface measured by infrared as the input. The tip's surface temperature is determined by finite element analysis (FEA) and compared with temperatures obtained from experimental measurements. Good agreement demonstrates the proposed model. 15 refs.

Title: Curing residual strain monitoring of carbon fiber reinforced polymer composite using notched long-period fiber grating
Page Range: p.27-34
Author(s): Ke-Ping Ma; Chao-Wei Wu; Bo-Lan Fang; Chia-Chin Chiang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Composite materials are widely used in the aerospace industry and structural engineering owing to their advantageous mechanical properties. The curing monitoring of composite material is important to ensure the quality of the curing process, especially for the characterisation of residual strains after manufacturing. In this study, we present a notched long-period fibre grating (NLPFG) with a period of 650 mm and a diameter of 66 mm that can be used in the curing monitoring of composite materials. This NLPFG was embedded into the middle layers of composite materials in order to determine the curing residual stress exhibited by the materials. The experimental results showed that the residual stress was about 107 MPa and the axial residual strain was 1490 me. Therefore, the proposed NLPFG has potential as a strain sensor for composite materials. 17 refs.

Title: Mechanical properties of glass bead-modified polymer composite
Page Range: p.35-44
Author(s): Tsung-Han Hsieh; Ming-Yuan Shen; Yau-Shian Huang; Qi-Qian He; Hsuan-Chih Chen
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
This present work investigated the adhesive effect of the material properties and fracture toughness of a thermosetting epoxy polymer modified with micron-sized glass beads. Various surface treatments were used to modify the surfaces of the glass beads in order to consider the effect of the glass bead particle/ epoxy adhesion on the material properties and toughness of the polymer-based composites. Adding glass beads into polymer resulted in an increase in the modulus. The maximum value of the modulus was obtained for the polymer composite modified with well-bonded glass beads. The addition of the glass beads to polymers leads to a significant improvement in the fracture toughness. The particle/ matrix adhesion strongly affects the toughness of the glass bead-modified polymers. The coupling agent silane treatment and release agent Frekote treatment caused well-bonded particles and poorly-bonded particles with the epoxy matrix. Both of the surface treatments result in a significant increase in the toughening performance. Toughening mechanisms of plastic void growth and crack deflection caused by the addition of the glass beads were found on the fracture surfaces of the tested specimens. 20 refs.

Title: The effect of MBS toughening for mechanical properties of wood-plastic composites under environmental ageing
Page Range: p.45-58
Author(s): Chin-Hsing Chen; Chin-Lung Chiang; Wei-Jen Chen; Ming-Yuan Shen
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Wood-plastic composites (WPCs) are a promising environmentally friendly material refers to composite that contain plant powders or fibres as reinforcement and plastic matrix. In this study, an epoxy resin and Methyl metharylate-Butadiene-Styrene Copolymer (MBS) were used as a compatibiliser and toughener and were filled into recycled polyethylene terephthalate (PET) and recycled polyamide 6 (PA6) blends (PET/PA6) and filled with wood flour to prepare the WPCs. The mechanical properties of the WPCs, including the tensile, flexural, and impact properties, with different mixing ratio polymer blends of PET to PA6 (E60/A40, E50/A50, and E40/A60) were investigated under different environmental ageing conditions. The experimental results showed that different environmental conditions, such as temperature and humidity, markedly changed the mechanical properties of the WPCs with different mixing ratio polymer blends. In addition, the mechanisms responsible for the interface of the WPCs were identified by studying the fracture surfaces with field emission scanning electron microscopy. 19 refs.

Title: Characterization and properties of graphene nanoplatelets/XNBR nanocomposites
Page Range: p.59-68
Author(s): Chen-Feng Kuan; Chin-Lung Chiang; Su-Hsia Lin; Wei-Guo Huang; Wen-Yen Hsieh; Ming-Yuan Shen
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) are two-dimensional carbon structure materials with single or multilayers graphite plane which possesses attractive characteristics including high electrical conductivity, high modulus, high strength, high thermal conductivity and high specific surface area. In this study, the GNPs were modified by maleic anhydride (MA) and vinyltrimethoxysilane (VTMOS), and then reinforced carboxy NBR (XNBR) to prepare GNPs/nitrile rubber (XNBR) nanocomposites. The modified GNPs were characterised by Fourier Transform Infrared Spectrometry (FT-IR), Raman spectroscopy. The properties of GNPs/XNBR nanocomposite such as thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), thermal conductivity and mechanical properties were investigated. The experimental results show that the successful modification of GNPs can improve the properties of the nanocomposites. 21 refs.

Title: Combined temperature and moisture effect on the monotonic and fatigue strengths of sandwich beams with glass-polypropylene faces and aluminum foam cores
Page Range: p.69-78
Author(s): Yi-Ming Jen; Chia-Wei Chang
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Recently, the sandwich structures with thermoplastic faces and metal foam cores have been received much attention in the automobile, aerospace and naval industries. Since the material properties of the polymer-based faces and adhesive films employed in the sandwich structures are sensitive to the temperature and humidity, the knowledge of the environmental effect on the mechanical properties are important to the design and application of such structures. Therefore, the hygrothermal effect on the static and fatigue bending strengths of the sandwich beams with glass-polypropylene faces and aluminium foam cores were experimentally analysed in the present study. The monotonic and cyclic four-point bending tests were conducted under four environmental conditions, i.e., 25 deg. C/45% RH, 25 deg. C/75% RH, 50 deg. C/45% RH, and 50 deg. C/75% RH, to evaluate the influence of combined temperature and humidity on the strengths against the static and cyclic flexural loads. Experimental results show that the humidity has tiny effect on the static and fatigue strengths when the specimens were tested at fixed temperature. However, the temperature plays an important role in the environmental effect because the monotonic and fatigue strengths of the studied sandwich specimens decrease significantly when the ambient temperature rises from 25 to 50 deg. C. Furthermore, under four considered environmental conditions, two crack systems, the core shear ones and the face/core interfacial ones, were observed both in the monotonic and cyclic tests. The development of interfacial cracks strongly depends on the environmental variables. Accordingly the interfacial cracks play an important role in the static and fatigue strengths of the studied sandwich structures. 37 refs.

Title: Nonlinear dynamic characteristics of PZT/polymer gripper
Page Range: p.79-84
Author(s): Jia Xu; Yi-Ran Li; Hai-Bo Wang; Zhi-Wen Zhu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
A kind of PZT/polymer gripper is proposed in this paper and its nonlinear dynamic response in bounded noise is described. In this paper, a polymer piezoelectric material is applied in gripper to substitute the traditional PZT to improve the response range. Nonlinear differential items are introduced to interpret the hysteretic phenomena of the PZT/polymer piezoelectric composites material, and the nonlinear dynamic model of the PZT/polymer gripper in bounded noise is developed. The dynamic response of the system is obtained, and the bifurcation characteristics of the system are analysed. The results of numerical simulation and experiments show that the stochastic noise intensity has important influence on the system's dynamical response, and the stochastic resonance phenomenon occurs with the stochastic noise intensity variety. 11 refs.

Title: Enhancement mechanism for carbohydrate polymer green lubricant
Page Range: p.85-90
Author(s): Shih-Chen Shi; Jhen-Yu Wu
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
The objective of this study was to investigate a mechanism for enhancing the tribological properties of a green polymer material using MoS2, which is a common material with good tribological qualities. In this study, MoS2 nanoparticles were added to the biopolymer Hydroxypropyl Methylcellulose, obtaining an evident enhancement of the tribological behaviour. The suitable content of MoS2 can provide the best structure of the composite film and optimise the transfer layer, and further enhance the tribological properties. The addition of 5-10% MoS2 particles to the polymer can improve the surface roughness up to 60%, reduce the friction coefficient of the thin-film material by more than 40% and reduce the wear rate of the substrate by 65%. The mechanism by which MoS2 additives enhance the tribological properties of the biopolymer material lies in the reduction of the run-in time in the initial stage of wear by modifying the surface roughness. This effect accelerates the formation of a transfer layer of good quality and provides good tribological properties. 18 refs.

Title: Design and simulation analysis of lightweight HDPE milk bottle
Page Range: p.91-98
Author(s): Hsing-Hui Huang; Li-Wen Chen; Wei-Hua Lu; Wei-Cheng Lin; Yung-Chuan Chen
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
A lightweight design is proposed for a 2800 ml HDPE milk bottle. In designing the bottle, a threedimensional elastic-plastic dynamic finite element model is first constructed to explore the effect of the bottle thickness on the critical load and stress distribution. The validity of the proposed model is confirmed by comparing the numerical results for the load-displacement response of the bottle with the experimental results. A parametric analysis is then performed to examine the effects of the body thickness and bottom thickness on the critical load and weight of the HDPE bottle. The results show that the critical load increases with an increasing body thickness, but is insensitive to the bottom thickness. Finally, a lightweight design is proposed in which the structural shape of the original bottle is retained, but the thickness is varied in different regions of the body in order to reduce the weight. It is shown that the redesigned bottle achieves the same maximum top-load 315 N, but reduces the weight by 21.4% compared to the reference design obtained in the parametric analysis. 9 refs.

Title: Mechanical property of multiwall carbon nanotube reinforced polymer composites
Page Range: p.99-104
Author(s): Chao-Kai Yang; Yu-Roung Lee; Tsung-Han Hsieh; Tao-Hsing Chen; Tsung-Chieh Cheng
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
This study investigates the multiwalled carbon nanotube as potential mechanical reinforcement in epoxy polymer. It is found that, by adding various concentrations of nanotube, both flow stress and fracture strain increased. Furthermore, the presences of the multiwalled carbon nanotubes are found to nucleate crystallisation in the epoxy. This crystal growth is thought to enhance the strength of composite. The fracture surface analysis of the composite reinforced by carbon nanotube is used the scanning electron microscopy. 16 refs.

Title: Design of radar absorbing structures utilizing carbon-based polymer composites
Page Range: p.105-110
Author(s): Sang-Young Kim; Sung-Soo Kim
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
Radar absorbing structure (RAS) is a composite laminate with a low reflection coefficient for the electromagnetic illumination in microwave frequency range, and thereby can be used in the stealth technology and electromagnetic compatibility (EMC). In this study, microwave absorbing properties of a two-layer composite laminate (carbon black impregnated rubber sheet attached to the carbon fibre-epoxy composite panel) has been investigated. Complex permittivity and permeability of the composite materials were measured in C- and X-band frequencies (4-12 GHz) by reflection/transmission technique using a coaxial waveguide and network analyser. Complex permittivity can be controlled with the amount of carbon black in the rubber composite. High values of dielectric constant and dielectric loss are observed in the carbon fibre composite. Optimisation of microwave absorption is conducted for the two-layer RAS on the basis of transmission line theory. It is found that microwave absorption is strongly sensitive to carbon black content in the rubber composite and its layer thickness. For the rubber sheet containing 10% carbon black (with dielectric constant >>5), the maximum microwave absorption (30 dB) is predicted at 10 GHz. 17 refs.

Title: Shear strength of concrete wide beams shear reinforced with GFRP plates
Page Range: p.111-118
Author(s): Min Sook Kim; Joowon Kang; Young Hak Lee
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
This paper discusses the experimental results on the shear behaviour of concrete wide beams reinforced with glass fibre reinforced polymer (GFRP) plates as shear reinforcement. In order to examine the shear performance, a total of six concrete wide beams were manufactured and tested. All the specimens were designed to have the same number of legs of shear reinforcement. The transverse spacing of shear reinforcement was considered as a variable to investigate the influence of transverse spacing of concrete wide beams. From the test results, it is observed that the shear strength increased when transverse spacing of the shear reinforcement decreased. In addition, an equation is proposed to predict the shear strength of concrete wide beams in order to consider the influence of transverse spacing of the shear reinforcement. The equation is based on the test results and modified ACI 318-14. It is verified that the proposed equation is considered to be better than ACI 318-14. 7 refs.

Title: Residual strength and deformation recovery of RC beams strengthened with FRPs plates under the sustained load
Page Range: p.119-126
Author(s): Dooyong Cho; Hoseong Jeong; Kyoungbong Han
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Journal: Polymers and Polymer Composites
Issue Year: ppc
Volume: 26
Issue No: No.1

Abstract
In this paper, in order to estimate efficacy, creep recovery, and residual strength of Fibre Reinforced Polymers (FRPs) strengthened Reinforced Concrete (RC) beams, long-term flexural experiments and static flexural experiments were carried out. For the long-term experiments, the beams were strengthened with a Carbon Fibre Reinforced Polymer (CFRP) plate and a Glass Fibre Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) plate respectively. The beams were placed under sustained loads for about 550 days. After the 550 days, all of the beams were unloaded for the measurement of deformation recovery. The deflection and strains of rebars and FRPs reinforcements were measures for about 60 days. As the result of long-terms experiment, the beams strengthened with CFRP plate showed a better performance in terms of deflection and strains of rebars. And the strengthened RC beams were very effective in terms of deflection control. Furthermore, the strengthened beams have shown immediate deformation recovery. Through the static flexural experiments, it was shown that the CFRP strengthened beam had high residual strength. It seems that the sustained loads did not affect bond and residual strength of the beams. 7 refs.

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